Biological Networks: Tools, Methods, and Analysis

  • Basharat Ahmad BhatEmail author
  • Garima Singh
  • Rinku Sharma
  • Mifftha Yaseen
  • Nazir Ahmad Ganai


Next-generation sequencing techniques make it clear that all eukaryotes share significant portions of the genome specifying the core biological functions. Understanding of the biological function of such distributed proteins in one organism can normally be assigned to different species, which ultimately helps in extracting relevant biological information. This can be achieved by examining the basic components individually and then studying how these are connected in a network. Networks help in visualization and understanding the interactions between myriad components of a system that are mainly represented as graphs where different nodes (proteins) are connected via edges. The core biological information portrayal is provided by gene ontology that covers several domains of molecular and cellular biology. In this chapter, we tried to elaborate the data types extracted from various techniques and made them conveniently coherent to the readers through examples. We have also explained the complex biological networks theory comprehensively, following the functional analysis speculations, using real examples from various bioinformatics tools.


Gene ontology GO annotation Biological networks AmiGO STRING QuickGO DAVID 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Basharat Ahmad Bhat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Garima Singh
    • 2
  • Rinku Sharma
    • 2
  • Mifftha Yaseen
    • 3
  • Nazir Ahmad Ganai
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Life Sciences, School of Natural SciencesShiv Nadar UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Life SciencesShiv Nadar UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  3. 3.School of Interdisciplinary Sciences and TechnologyJamia Hamdard UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Animal Genetics and BreedingSher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology – KashmirSrinagarIndia

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