Exploration of Macrofungi in Sub-Tropical Semi-Evergreen Indian Forest Ecosystems

  • Lallawmsanga
  • Ajit Kumar Passari
  • Bhim Pratap SinghEmail author
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


Mushrooms have been known as additional food worldwide for their high nutritional content and medicinal importance for instance anticancer, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiviral and cardiovascular properties. Furthermore, there are several mushroom extracts that have been reported for their potential adjuvants in the radiation treatments and chemotherapy. In addition, several mushrooms contain various bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, polyglucan, polyphenol, polysaccharides, polyketides, steroids, terpenoids and dietary fibers that showed numerous pharmacological activities. The exploration of mushroom biodiversity in sub-tropical semi-evergreen Indian forest ecosystems especially in Mizoram state is of utmost importance as this region is still unexplored with regard to mushroom diversity.


Mushroom Anticancer Antiviral Alkaloids Mizoram 



The authors are thankful to the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for DBT sponsored NER-Twinning project (No. BT/320/NE/TBP/2012). We gratefully acknowledge Chief Wildlife Warden, Environment and Forest Department, Government of Mizoram, India. We are grateful for Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for establishing DBT-BIF centre and DBT-State Biotech Hub in the Department of Biotechnology, Mizoram University.


  1. Adhikari MK (2000) Mushrooms of Nepal. P.U. Printers, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  2. Alessandra Z, Domizia D, Luigi RG, Simonetta F, Niccol BGM, Mirco I, Asuncion M, Lahsen K, Abdulhakim B, Federica P, Riccardo C, Giuseppe V (2014) Hypogeous fungi in Mediterranean Maquis, Arid and Semi-Arid forests. Mycorrhiza 24(6):481–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alves MJ, Ferreira ICFR, Froufe HJC, Abreu RMV, Martins A, Pintado M (2013) Antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds identified in wild mushrooms, SAR analysis and dochking studies. J Appl Microbiol 115:346–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arora D (1991) All that rain promises and more: a hip pocket guide to Western Mushrooms. Ten Speed Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  5. Barros L, Calhelha RC, Vaz JA, Ferreira ICFR, Baptista P, Estevinho LM (2007) Antimicrobial activity and bioactive compounds of Portuguese wild edible mushrooms methanolic extracts. Eur Food Res Technol 225:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Butler MS (2004) The role of natural product chemistry in drug discovery. J Nat Prod 67:2141–2153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang ST, Miles PG (1992) Mushroom biology - A new discipline. The Mycologist 6:64–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dimitrijevic MV, Mitic VD, Cvetkovic JS, Stankov Jovanovic VP, Mutic JJ, Nikolic Mandic SD (2016) Update on element content profiles in eleven wild edible mushrooms from family Boletaceae. Eur Food Res Technol 242:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eswaran A, Ramabadran R (2000) Studies on some physiological, cultural and post harvest aspects of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eous. Trop Agri Res 12:360–374Google Scholar
  10. Ferreira ICFR, Barros L, Abreu RMV (2009) Antioxidants in wild mushrooms. Cur Med Chem 16:1543–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferris R, Peace AJ, Newton AC (2000) Macro fungal communities of low land Scots pine and Norway spruce plantations in England: relationships with site factors and stand structure. For Ecol Manag 131:255–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gadd GM (2007) Geomycology: Biogeochemical transformations of rocks, minerals, metals and radionuclides by fungi bioweathering and bioremediation. Mycol Res 111:3–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garibay-Orijel R, Cordova J, Cifuentes J, Valenzuela R, Estrada-Torres E A, Kong A (2009) Integrating wild mushrooms use into a model of sustainable management for indigenous community forests. For Ecol Manag 258:122–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gast GH, Jansen E, Bierling J, Haanstra L (1988) Heavy metals in mushroom and their relationship with soil characteristics. Chemosphere 60(4):789–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghate SD, Sridhar KR (2015) Contribution to the knowledge on macrofungi in mangroves of the southwest India. Plant Biosyst 150:977–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hawksworth DL (2001) The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1.5 million species estimate revisited. Mycol Res 105(12):1422–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Izlam MZ, Rahman MH, Hafiz F (2009) Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus flabellatus) on different substrates. Int J Sustain Crop Prod 4(1):45–48Google Scholar
  18. Krishna G, Samatha B, Himabindu SVSSSLN, Prasad MR, Rajitha B, Charaya MAS (2015) Macrofungi in some forests of Telengana State, India. J Mycol 382476:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lallawmsanga, Passari AK, Mishra VK, Leo VV, Singh BP, Meyyappan GV, Gupta VK, Uthandi S, Upadhyay RC (2016) Antimicrobial potential, identification and phylogenetic affiliation of wild mushrooms from two sub-tropical semi-evergreen Indian forest ecosystems. PLoS One 11(11):e0166368PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lian B, Zang J, Hou W, Yuan S, Smith DL (2008) PCR-based sensitive detection of the edible fungus Boletus edulis from rDNA ITS sequences. Electron J Biotechnol 11(3):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu B, Huang Q, Cai H, Guo X, Wang T, Gui M (2015) Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China. Food Chem 188:294–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Manoharachary CS, Singh KR, Adholeya A, Suryanarayanan TS, Rawat S, Johri BN (2005) Fungal biodiversity: distribution, conservation and prospecting of fungi from India. Curr Sci 89:58–71Google Scholar
  23. Mei ZQ, Fu SY, Yu HQ, Yang LQ, Duan CG, Liu XY, Gong S, Fu JJ (2014) Genetic characterization and authentication of Dimocarpus longan Lour. using an improved RAPD technique. Genet Mol Res 13(1):1447–1455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mueller GM, Schmit JP, Huhndorf SM, Ryvarden L, O’Dell TE, Lodge JE, Leacock PR, Mata M, Umana L, Wu Q, Czederpiltz DL (2004) Recommended protocols for sampling macrofungi. In: Mueller GM, Bills GF, Foster MS (eds) Biodiversity of Fungi: inventory and monitoring methods. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, pp 168–172Google Scholar
  25. Mueller GM, Schmit JP, Leacock PR, Buyck B, Cifuentes J, Desjardin DE, Halling RE, Hjortstam K, Iturriaga T, Larsson KH, Lodge DJ, May TW, Minter D, Rajchenberg M, Redhead SA, Ryvarden L, Trappe JM, Watling R, Wu Q (2007) Global diversity and distribution of macrofungi. Biodivers Conserv 16:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mullis KB, Faloona FA (1987) Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction. Methods Enzymol 155:335–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Packham JM, May TM, Brown MJ, Wardlaw TJ, Mills KA (2002) Macrofungal diversity and community ecology in mature and regrowth wet eucalypt forest in Tasmania: A multivariate study. Austral Ecol 27:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Popovic V, Zivkovic J, Davidovic S, Stevanovic M, Stojkovic D (2013) Mycotherapy of cancer: an update on cytotoxic and antitumor activities of mushrooms, bioactive principles and molecular mechanisms of their action. Curr Top Med Chem 13:279–2806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rafique AN (1996) Studies on the cultivation of mushroom Pleurotus species in Gujarat. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Microbiology, M.G. Science Institute, Navrangpura, AhmedabadGoogle Scholar
  30. Sánchez-Ballesteros J, González V, Salazar O, Acero J, Portal MA, Julián M, Rubio V, Bill GF, Platas G, Mochales S, Peláez F (2000) Phylogenetic study of Hypoxylon and related genera based on ribosomal ITS sequences. Mycologia 92:964–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shah ZA, Ashraf M, Ishtiq C (2004) Comparative study on cultivation and yield performance of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on different substrates (Wheat straw, leaves, sawdust). Pak J Nutri 3:158–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shakeel M, Ilyas M, Kazim M (2013) Evaluation of synthetic hexaploid wheats (derivative of durum wheats and Aegilops tauschii accessions) for studying genetic diversity using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Mol Biol Rep 40:21–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sibounnavong P, Cynthia CD, Kalaw SP, Reye RG, Soytong K (2008) Some species of macrofungi at Puncan, Carranglan, Nueva Ecija in the Philippines. J Agri Technol 4(2):105–115Google Scholar
  34. Tang LH, Xiao Y, Li L, Guo Q, Bian YB (2010) Analysis of genetic diversity among Chinese Auricularia auricular cultivars using combined ISSR and SRAP markers. Curr Microbiol 61:132–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Trappe JM, Castellano MA (1991) Keys to genera of truffles (Ascomycetes). McIlvainea 10:47–65Google Scholar
  36. Tuckwell DS, Nicholson MJ, McSweeney CS, Theodorou MK, Brookman JL (2005) The rapid assignment of ruminal fungi to presumptive genera using ITS1 and ITS2 RNA secondary structures to produce group-specific fingerprints. Microbiology 151:1557–1567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yin Y, Liu Y, Li H, Zhao S, Wang S, Liu Y, Wu D, Xu F (2014) Genetic diversity of Pleurotus pulmonarius revealed by RAPD, ISSR, and SRAP fingerprinting. Curr Microbiol 68:397–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zietkiewicz E, Rafalski A, Labuda D (1994) Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR) – anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification. Genomics 20(2):176–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lallawmsanga
    • 1
  • Ajit Kumar Passari
    • 1
  • Bhim Pratap Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Molecular Microbiology and Systematics Laboratory, Department of BiotechnologyMizoram UniversityAizawlIndia

Personalised recommendations