G2G Marketing from Crisis to Resolution: Marketing for when the Government must Target the Government: An Abstract
In public policy marketing (PPM), government agencies play dual roles as both clients and suppliers to each other at times. Just as with business-to-business (B2B) marketing, government segments must solicit funds from other government agencies and distribute funds to other government agencies. Examples include state interactions with federal agencies (as clients) when requesting competitively distributed disaster funding from the federal government (e.g., for flood mitigation after a hurricane), the US Department of Transportation funding to State Departments of Transportation for highway construction, US Department of Housing and Urban Development funding to state and local governments for housing assistance, or federal government funding to state universities (grants from SBA, NSF, NIH, etc.). States also act as suppliers distributing funds to local governments for housing assistance, health and welfare systems, etc. When a catastrophe spreads across several states, states essentially compete to receive as much as possible of the federal funds pie. Just as with for-profit industries and social profit enterprises, governments are in competition for market share. We denote the process of facilitating this dual solicitation/distribution role involving governmental entity’s exchange is called “Government to Government Marketing” (G2G marketing for short).
This presentation addresses techniques useful for G2G marketing when competition among divisions of government is simultaneously competitive and cooperative with goals directed toward a very tangible social goal, such as disaster relief and recovery. Unlike B2B marketing, profit orientation is not a motive but competition for exchange ensues for other rationales (including votes and funding goals). G-to-G marketing stakes can be for billions of dollars and create large economic domino effects for the communities receiving funding. Many disciplines are relevant to G2G marketing as society and public policy makers are central stakeholders in this competition.
G2G marketing differs from B2B marketing approaches in that it often operates with more (unpublished/unknown) constraints on permissible competitive marketing techniques. And, disasters themselves create all kinds of markets, even in government relations. G2G marketing is an increasingly important and academically ignored approach to market perspectives, not previously introduced into the marketing literature. While at first glance these situations may appear “political,” there are clear marketing implications from relationship marketing to political (voter) marketing and market share analyses, as well as strategic market planning.
Some traditional marketing techniques that apply to the potentially high-stakes G2G marketing are discussed. For example, predictive modeling to estimate future needs before they occur, and relationship marketing between and among agencies being headed by elected officials. The dominoes and halo effects of many systems need to be treated as customers and stakeholders to move societal goals forward. This session will point out differences between G2G marketing, B2B marketing, and B2C marketing that, as government grows, may be important to remember.
References Available Upon Request