Evolution of Abdominal Wall Surgery in Non-developed Countries



Inguinal hernia is a common pathology in Western, and even more in African countries.

The dependence on work and the cost of treatment often force the patients to undergo surgical treatment only when there is no other alternative, in emergency, with high risk of morbidity and mortality.

The high prevalence of abdominal wall defects in developed countries has led to the development of different channels of collaboration with the rest of the world and the creation of specific centres also in rural areas for the treatment of abdominal wall hernias.

To reduce as much as possible the gap between the different nations of the world in the surgical treatment and in the perioperative management of abdominal wall hernias, various world organizations have supported humanitarian missions and capacity-building educational collaborations essential to address the global burden of surgical abdominal disease.


Global surgery Hernia Developing countries Medical education and training 


  1. 1.
    Gil J, Rodríguez JM, Hernández Q, et al. Do hernia operations in African international cooperation programmes provide good quality? World J Surg. 2012;36(12):2795–801. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kingsnorth AN, Oppong C, Akoh J, Stephenson B, Simmermacher R. Operation hernia to Ghana. Hernia. 2006;10(5):376–9. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harouna Y, Yaya H, Abdou I, Bazira L. Prognosis of strangulated inguinal hernia in the adult: influence of intestinal necrosis. Apropos of 34 cases. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2000;93(5):317–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fall B, Betel ME, Diarra O, Ba M, Dia A, Diop A. Complications of treatment of adult’s groin hernia: a report of 100 cases comparative study between Bassini and Mac Vay’s technics. Dakar Med. 2005;50(1):37–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Turaga KK, Garg N, Coeling M, et al. Inguinal hernia repair in a developing country. Hernia. 2006;10(4):294–8. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wagner JP, Schroeder AD, Espinoza JC, et al. Global outreach using a systematic, competency-based training paradigm for inguinal hernioplasty. JAMA Surg. 2017;152(1):66–73. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amid PK. Lichtenstein tension-free hernioplasty: its inception, evolution, and principles. Hernia. 2004;8(1):1–7. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Amid PK. Groin hernia repair: open techniques. World J Surg. 2005;29(8):1046–51. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vatansev C, Belviranli M, Aksoy F, Tuncer S, Sahin M, Karahan O. The effects of different hernia repair methods on postoperative pain medication and CRP levels. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2002;12(4):243–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Howe KL, Malomo AO, Bernstein MA. Ethical challenges in international surgical education, for visitors and hosts. World Neurosurg. 2013;80(6):751–8. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ramsey KM, Weijer C. Ethics of surgical training in developing countries. World J Surg. 2007;31(11):2061–7. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schroeder AD, Campanelli G, Cavalli M, et al. Humanitarianism in surgery. Hernia. 2017;21(6):963–71. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moore AM, Datta N, Wagner JP, et al. Centralized, capacity-building training of Lichtenstein hernioplasty in Brazil. Am J Surg. 2017;213(2):277–81. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General and Day Surgery Unit, Center of Research and High Specialization for the Pathologies of Abdominal Wall and Surgical Treatment and Repair of Abdominal HerniaMilano Hernia Center, Istituto Clinico Sant’AmbrogioMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations