• Ariel E. Lugo
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Energy book series (BRIEFSENERGY)


Islanders and ecologists had not experienced an event like hurricane María, but that did not inhibit them from anticipating the potential effects of such a storm, and the importance of being prepared for when an event like María would happen. The effects of María nevertheless surprised everyone. They eye of María entered Puerto Rico as a category 4 and exited as a category 3 hurricane 12 h later, exposing the island to 24 h of hurricane effects. In addition, Puerto Rico was affected by the passage of hurricane Irma north of the island and by the effects of winter storm Riley that passed over the northeastern United States of America in March 2018.

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© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariel E. Lugo
    • 1
  1. 1.San JuanPuerto Rico

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