Effect of Nano-TiO2 Particles on Mechanical Properties of Hydrothermal Aged Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

  • Ramesh Kumar Nayak
Part of the Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences book series (NALIS)


Polymer nanocomposites are defined as the combination of a polymer matrix and nano-sized additives. Fibrous polymer composites are gradually and steadily replacing the conventional metallic materials in almost all sectors of applications. However, environmental sensitivity and its implications on properties and performance of this class of material are the serious concern of the material scientists and technologists. This chapter emphasizes on the addition of nano-TiO2 filler into the epoxy matrix on water absorption, thermal and mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The effect of nanofillers content on water absorption and thermal and mechanical properties is evaluated and compared with neat epoxy glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Weibull design parameters are determined to confirm the nominal flexural strength and its randomness of the experimental results. Fractography analysis supports the enhancement or deterioration of water diffusion coefficient and mechanical and thermal properties through field emission scanning electron microscopy.


Nano-TiO2 Mechanical Hydrothermal Epoxy polymer Glass fiber Composites 


  1. Barbezat M, Brunner AJ, Necola A, Rees M, Gasser P, Terrasi G (2009) Fracture behavior of GFRP laminates with nanocomposite epoxy resin matrix. J Compos Mater 43:959–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauer F, Decker U, Ernst H, Findeisen M, Langguth H, Mehnert R (2006) Functionalized inorganic/organic nanocomposites as new basic raw materials for adhesives and sealants Part 2. Int J Adhes Adhes 26:567–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Böger L, Sumfleth J, Hedemann H, Schulte K (2010) Improvement of fatigue life by incorporation of nanoparticles in glass fibre reinforced epoxy. Compos Part Appl Sci Manuf 41:1419–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carballeira P, Haupert F (2010) Toughening effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on TiO2/epoxy resin nanocomposites. Polym Compos 31:1241–1246Google Scholar
  5. Chang LN, Chow WS (2010) Accelerated weathering on glass fiber/epoxy/organo-montmorillonite nanocomposites. J Compos Mater 44:1421–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chatterjee A, Islam MS (2008) Fabrication and characterization of TiO2–epoxy nanocomposite. Mater Sci Eng A 487:574–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chau JLH, Tung C-T, Lin Y-M, Li A-K (2008) Preparation and optical properties of titania/epoxy nanocomposite coatings. Mater Lett 62:3416–3418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dikobe DG, Luyt AS (2010) Comparative study of the morphology and properties of PP/LLDPE/wood powder and MAPP/LLDPE/wood powder polymer blend composites. Express Polym Lett 4:729–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dong C, Davies IJ (2012) Optimal design for the flexural behaviour of glass and carbon fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites. Mater Des 37:450–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellyin F, Maser R (2004) Environmental effects on the mechanical properties of glass-fiber epoxy composite tubular specimens. Compos Sci Technol 64:1863–1874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fan XJ, Lee SWR, Han Q (2009) Experimental investigations and model study of moisture behaviors in polymeric materials. Microelectron Reliab 49:861–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gautier L, Mortaigne B, Bellenger V (1999) Interface damage study of hydrothermally aged glass-fibre-reinforced polyester composites. Compos Sci Technol 59:2329–2337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghosh PK, Nukala SK (2008) Properties of adhesive joint of inorganic nano-filler composite adhesive. Indian J Eng Mater Sci 15:68Google Scholar
  14. Godara A, Gorbatikh L, Kalinka G, Warrier A, Rochez O, Mezzo L (2010) Interfacial shear strength of a glass fiber/epoxy bonding in composites modified with carbon nanotubes. Compos Sci Technol 70:1346–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gojny FH, Wichmann MH, Fiedler B, Bauhofer W, Schulte K (2005) Influence of nano-modification on the mechanical and electrical properties of conventional fiber-reinforced composites. Compos Part Appl Sci Manuf 36:1525–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gonon P, Sylvestre A, Teysseyre J, Prior C (2001) Combined effects of humidity and thermal stress on the dielectric properties of epoxy-silica composites. Mater Sci Eng B 83:158–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayashi K, Kurosaka Y, Osako Y, Ha J, Vacha M, Sato H (2005) Electrical properties of composites of TiO 2-triphenylamine derivatives. Thin Solid Films 474:337–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hodzic A, Kim JK, Lowe AE, Stachurski ZH (2004) The effects of water aging on the interphase region and interlaminar fracture toughness in polymer–glass composites. Compos Sci Technol 64:2185–2195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hong JI, Winberg P, Schadler LS, Siegel RW (2005) Dielectric properties of zinc oxide/low density polyethylene nanocomposites. Mater Lett 59:473–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Iqbal K, Khan S-U, Munir A, Kim J-K (2009) Impact damage resistance of CFRP with the nanoclay-filled epoxy matrix. Compos Sci Technol 69:1949–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jongsomjit B, Chaichana E, Praserthdam P (2004) LLDPE/nano-silica composites synthesized via in situ polymerization of ethylene/1-hexene with MAO/metallocene catalyst. J Mater Sci 40:2043–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim H-Y, Park Y-H, You Y-J, Moon C-K (2008) Short-term durability test for GFRP rods under various environmental conditions. Compos Struct 83:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kinloch AJ, Masania K, Taylor AC, Sprenger S, Egan D (2007) The fracture of glass-fibre-reinforced epoxy composites using nanoparticle-modified matrices. J Mater Sci 43:1151–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lau K, Wong T, Leng J, Hui D, Rhee KY (2013) Property enhancement of polymer-based composites at cryogenic environment by using tailored carbon nanotubes. Compos Part B Eng 54:41–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li H, Zhang Z, Ma X, Hu M, Wang X, Fan P (2007) Synthesis and characterization of epoxy resin modified with nano-SiO2 and γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane. Surf Coat Technol 201:5269–5272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li W, He D, Dang Z, Bai J (2014) In situ damage sensing in the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composites containing CNT–Al2O3 hybrids. Compos Sci Technol 99:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luo J-J, Daniel IM (2003) Characterization and modeling of mechanical behavior of polymer/clay nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 63:1607–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maggana C, Pissis P (1999) Water sorption and diffusion studies in an epoxy resin system. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 37:1165–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mangalgiri PD (1999) Composite materials for aerospace applications. Bull Mater Sci 22:657–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nayak RK, Mahato KK, Ray BC (2016) Water absorption behavior, mechanical and thermal properties of nano TiO2 enhanced glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Compos Part A 90:736–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Okpala CC (2014) The benefits and applications of nanocomposites. Int J Adv Engg Tech 6(4):12–18Google Scholar
  32. Park H-K, Su-Jin L, Yoon-Jeong K, Jang C-I, Won J-P (2007) Mechanical properties and microstructures of GFRP Rebar after long-term exposure to chemical environments. Polym Polym Compos 15:403–408Google Scholar
  33. Pavlidou S, Papaspyrides CD (2008) A review on polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. Prog Polym Sci 33:1119–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pervin F, Zhou Y, Rangari VK, Jeelani S (2005) Testing and evaluation on the thermal and mechanical properties of carbon nano fiber reinforced SC-15 epoxy. Mater Sci Eng A 405:246–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rao RMVGK, Chanda M, Balasubramanian N (1984) Factors affecting moisture absorption in polymer composites part II: influence of external factors. J Reinf Plast Compos 3:246–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silva MAG, da Fonseca BS, Biscaia H (2014) On estimates of durability of FRP based on accelerated tests. Compos Struct 116:377–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Soundararajah QY, Karunaratne BSB, Rajapakse RMG (2009) Mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) montmorillonite nanocomposites. J Compos Mater 44(3):303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Won J-P, Yoon Y-N, Hong B-T, Choi T-J, Lee S-J (2012) Durability characteristics of nano-GFRP composite reinforcing bars for concrete structures in moist and alkaline environments. Compos Struct 94:1236–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yu HJ, Wang L, Shi Q, Jiang GH, Zhao ZR, Dong XC (2006) Study on nano-CaCO3 modified epoxy powder coatings. Prog Org Coat 55:296–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhai L, Ling G, Li J, Wang Y (2006) The effect of nanoparticles on the adhesion of epoxy adhesive. Mater Lett 60:3031–3033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang X, Xu W, Xia X, Zhang Z, Yu R (2006) Toughening of cycloaliphatic epoxy resin by nanosize silicon dioxide. Mater Lett 60:3319–3323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zunjarrao SC, Singh RP (2006) Characterization of the fracture behavior of epoxy reinforced with nanometer and micrometer sized aluminum particles. Compos Sci Technol 66:2296–2305CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramesh Kumar Nayak
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringKIIT, Deemed to be UniversityBhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations