Advertisement

Situating the Dominant Narrative: Deracialized Readers and Reading Locations

  • Wongi Park
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter turns to an ideological assessment of the dominant narrative among real readers. The main argument is that the pattern of bypassing race/ethnicity is not an isolated phenomenon. It is rather predicated on and produced by dominant deracialized readers and reading locations. But rather than producing another reconstruction of Jesus, this chapter conducts an ideological investigation of the underlying dynamics of context, power, and representation by which scholarly reconstructions of Jesus are fashioned in the present. Only by approaching modern Jesus reconstructions from the subjective standpoint of real readers does one see that the non-ethnoracial pattern is not an isolated phenomenon. It is rather symptomatic of a broader deracializing ideology—the chief expression of which is the dominant Western representation of the white Jesus in the modern Christian imagination.

References

  1. Amaladoss, Michael. 2006. The Asian Jesus. Maryknoll: Orbis Books.Google Scholar
  2. Balch, David L. 1991. Social History of the Matthean Community: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bernal, Martin. 2006. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Birchall, Clare. 2006. Knowledge Goes Pop. Oxford/New York: Berg.Google Scholar
  5. Blum, Edward J., and Paul Harvey. 2012. The Color of Christ: The Son of God & the Saga of Race in America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  6. Brennan, Martin Stanislaus. 1898. The Science of the Bible. St. Louis: B. Herder.Google Scholar
  7. Buell, Denise K. 2005. Why This New Race: Ethnic Reasoning in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. ———. 2007. Constructing Early Christian Identities Using Ethnic Reasoning. Annali Di Storia Dell’esegesi 24 (1): 87–101.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 2009. God’s Own People: Specters of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Early Christian Studies. In Prejudice and Christian Beginnings: Investigating Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in Early Christian Studies, ed. Laura S. Nasrallah and Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza, 159–190. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  10. Carter, J. Kameron. 2008. Race: A Theological Account. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ———. 2007. Race and the Experience of Death: Theologically Reappraising American Evangelicalism. In The Cambridge Companion to Evangelical Theology, ed. Timothy Larsen and Daniel J. Treier, 177–198. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, Tina. 2005. Double Agency: Acts of Impersonation in Asian American Literature and Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Choi, Ki Joo. 2011. Should Race Matter? A Constructive Ethical Assessment of the Postracial Ideal. Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 31 (1): 79–101.Google Scholar
  14. Chuh, Kandice. 2003. Imagine Otherwise: On Asian Americanist Critique. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doane, Ashley W., and Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, eds. 2003. White Out: The Continuing Significance of Racism. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Fanon, Frantz. 2008. Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  17. Fea, John. 2011. Was America Founded As a Christian Nation? A Historical Introduction. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  18. Foster, Paul. 2004. Community, Law and Mission in Matthew’s Gospel. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.Google Scholar
  19. Fuery, Patrick, and Nick Mansfield. 2000. Cultural Studies and Critical Theory. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Fredriksen, Paula, and Adele Reinhartz, eds. 2002. Jesus, Judaism, and Christian Anti-Judaism: Reading the New Testament after the Holocaust. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gallagher, Charles A. 2007. White. In Handbook of the Sociology of Racial and Ethnic Relations, ed. Hernan Vera and Joe R. Feagin, 9–14. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garner, Steve. 2007. Whiteness: An Introduction. London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goldenberg, David M. 2003. The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gurtner, Daniel. 2011. The Gospel of Matthew from Stanton to Present: A Survey of some Recent Developments. In Jesus, Matthew’s Gospel and Early Christianity: Studies in Memory of Graham N. Stanton, ed. Graham Stanton, Daniel M. Gurtner, Joel Willitts, and Richard A. Burridge, 23–38. London: T&T Clark.Google Scholar
  25. Hall, Stuart. 1979. Culture, Media and the ‘Ideological Effect’. In Mass Communication and Society, ed. James Curran, Michael Gurevitch, and Janet Woollacott, 315–348. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 1997. The Spectacle of the ‘Other’. In Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, 223–290. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Hagner, Donald A. 1999. The Gospel of Matthew. In The New Testament Today, ed. Mark A. Powell, 31–44. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  28. ———. 2003. Matthew: Apostate, Reformer, Revolutionary? New Testament Studies 49 (2): 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. ———. 2012. Another Look at ‘The Parting of the Ways’. In Earliest Christian History, 381–427. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.Google Scholar
  30. Hare, Douglas. 1993. Matthew. Louisville: John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2000. How Jewish Is the Gospel of Matthew. Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62 (2): 264–277.Google Scholar
  32. ———. 2004. Matthew: Christian Judaism or Jewish Christianity? In The Face of the New Testament: A Survey of Recent Research, ed. Scott McKnight and Grant R. Osborne, 264–282. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic.Google Scholar
  33. Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles A. Murray. 1994. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  34. Heschel, Susannah. 2008. The Aryan Jesus: Christian Theologians and the Bible in Nazi Germany. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kelley, Shawn. 2002. Racializing Jesus: Race, Ideology, and the Formation of Modern Biblical Scholarship. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 2009. Race, Aesthetics, and Gospel Scholarship: Embracing and Subverting the Aesthetic Ideology. In Prejudice and Christian Beginnings: Investigating Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in Early Christian Studies, ed. Laura S. Nasrallah and Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza, 191–210. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  37. Lundbom, Jack R. 1999. Master Painter: Warner E. Sallman. Macon: Mercer University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Markus, Hazel R., and Paula M.L. Moya. 2010. Doing Race: 21 Essays for the 21st Century. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
  39. Martinot, Steve. 2010. The Machinery of Whiteness: Studies in the Structure of Racialization. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  40. McDaniel, Karl. 2013. Experiencing Irony in the First Gospel: Suspense, Surprise, and Curiosity. New York: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  41. McDannell, Colleen. 1995. Material Christianity: Religion and Popular Culture in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  42. McNutt, James E. 2012. A Very Damning Truth: Walter Grundmann, Adolf Schlatter, and Susannah Heschel’s The Aryan Jesus. Harvard Theological Review 105 (3): 280–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miles, Robert, and Malcolm Brown. 2004. Racism. London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mirón, Louis F., and Jonathan Xavier Inda. 2000. Race as a Kind of Speech Act. Cultural Studies 5: 85–107.Google Scholar
  45. Mitchell, W.J.T. 2012. Seeing Through Race. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morrison, Toni. 1992. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Nguyen, V. Henry T. 2010. The Quest for the Cinematic Jesus: Scholarly Explorations in Jesus Films. Currents in Biblical Research 8 (2): 183–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. 1994. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Overman, J.Andrew. 1990. Matthew’s Gospel and Formative Judaism: The Social World of the Matthean Community. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress.Google Scholar
  50. Piotrowski, Nicholas G. 2016. Matthew’s New David at the End of Exile: A Socio-Rhetorical Study of Scriptural Quotations. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Quarles, Chester L. 2004. Christian Identity: The Aryan American Bloodline Religion. Jefferson: McFarland.Google Scholar
  52. Reinhartz, Adele. 2009. Jesus Films. In Continuum Companion to Religion and Film, 211–221. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  53. Rindge, Matthew S., Erin Runions, and Richard S. Ascough. 2010. Teaching the Bible and Film: Pedagogical Promises, Pitfalls, and Proposals. Teaching Theology & Religion 13 (2): 140–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Runesson, Anders. 2008. Rethinking Early Jewish-Christian Relations: Matthean Community History as Pharasaic Intragroup Conflict. Journal of Biblical Literature 127: 95–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. ———. 2011. Judging Gentiles in the Gospel of Matthew: Between ‘Othering’ and Inclusion. In Jesus, Matthew’s Gospel and Early Christianity: Studies in Memory of Graham N. Stanton, ed. Daniel M. Gurtner, Joel Willitts, and Richard A. Burridge, 133–151. New York: T&T Clark.Google Scholar
  56. Saldarini, Anthony J. 1994. Matthew’s Christian-Jewish Community. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. 2000. Jesus and the Politics of Interpretation. New York/London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  58. Seidman, Steven. 2013. Contested Knowledge: Social Theory Today. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  59. Sim, David C. 1996. Christianity and Ethnicity in the Gospel of Matthew. In Ethnicity and the Bible, ed. Mark G. Brett, 171–196. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  60. ———. 1998. The Gospel of Matthew and Christian Judaism: The History and Social Setting of the Matthean Community. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.Google Scholar
  61. ———. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Gospel of Matthew. Expository Times 120 (10): 478–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. ———. 2011. Matthew: The Current State of Research. In Mark and Matthew: Comparative Readings, ed. Eve-Marie Becker and Anders Runesson, 33–51. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.Google Scholar
  63. Smith, Mitzi J., and Jayachitra Lalitha, eds. 2014. Teaching All Nations: Interrogating the Matthean Great Commission. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  64. Stanton, Graham. 1985. The Origin and Purpose of Matthew’s Gospel: Matthean Scholarship from 1945–1980. ANRW 2.25 (3): 1890–1951.Google Scholar
  65. ———. 1992. A Gospel for a New People: Studies in Matthew. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.Google Scholar
  66. ———. 1995. Introduction: Matthew’s Gospel in Recent Scholarship. In The Interpretation of Matthew, ed. Graham Stanton. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.Google Scholar
  67. Sugirtharajah, R.S. 2018. Jesus in Asia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Teel, Karen. 2010. Racism and the Image of God. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. ———. 2012. What Jesus Wouldn’t Do: A White Theologian Engages Whiteness. In Christology and Whiteness: What Would Jesus Do? ed. George Yancy, 19–36. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Vera, Hernan, and Andrew Gordon. 2003. Screen Saviors: Hollywood Fictions of Whiteness. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  71. Walters, Jerome. 2000. One Aryan Nation Under God: Exposing the New Racial Extremists. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press.Google Scholar
  72. Watkins, Gregory J. 2008. Teaching Religion and Film. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wongi Park
    • 1
  1. 1.Belmont UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations