Fundamental Freedoms and the Cursed Proportionality Test

  • Carl BaudenbacherEmail author
Part of the Springer Biographies book series (SPRINGERBIOGS)


The four fundamental freedoms—free movement of goods, persons, services and capital—have been taken over into the EEA Agreement from what is now the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Standard legal literature usually asserts that the implementation of these economic freedoms is indispensable to the realisation of a Single Market and that without them, such a market cannot function.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Urumea AGSt. GallenSwitzerland

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