Bloodstream infections (BSI) are the most frequent bacterial infections in HSCT patients; they occur in 5–10% of auto-HSCT and 20–50% of allo-HSCT patients, with higher rates before engraftment, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality (Tomblyn et al. 2009; Girmenia et al. 2017; Weisser et al. 2017; Mikulska et al. 2018a). Microbiological documentation of skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, and typhlitis is frequently missing.
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