Advertisement

Fluid Based Protective Structures

  • Dawid PacekEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 98)

Abstract

This paper describes rheological tests, drop tests and bulletproof tests of materials which are planned to be used as elements of bulletproof vests as well as in high impact protective equipment. Rheological tests of a homogenous composition of methyl-, phenyl-, borosiloxane polymers (KM material) performed for variable values of stress and strain at a fixed frequency of 1 Hz showed that the loss modulus exceeds the storage modulus throughout the whole tested range of shear stress so that the energy is more dissipated than stored. In the drop tests, same-mass samples of three materials, i.e. the KM material, the shear thickening fluid STF1 and the commercial shear thickening polymer ZB were tested. For a given impact energy (Ei = 35 J) and impact velocity (Vi = 1.9 m/s), the ZB material shows the best protective capability. In the ballistic tests, the sample with the KM material was tested with the use of .44 Magnum SJHP (semi-jacketed hollow-point) bullet following NIJ Standard-0101.04 for IIIA bulletproof class. The results were compared to the bulletproof tests of the ZB material from previous works. Better protective capability was achieved in the case of a commercial material. However, the tested KM material also exhibited the energy dissipation capability. Further work is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the KM material in a different type of casing.

Keywords

Body armor Rheological test Drop test Ballistic test 

References

  1. 1.
    Kalman, D.P., Shein, J.B., Houghton, J.M., Laufer, C.H.N., Wetzel, E.D., Wagner, N.J.: Polymer dispersion based shear thickening fluid-fabrics for protective applications. In: Proceedings of Symposium and Exhibition of the Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering SAMPE 2007, Baltimore (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wetzel, E.D., Lee, Y.S., Egres, R.G., Kirkwood, K.M., Kirkwood, J.E., Wagner, N.J.: The effect of rheological parameters on the ballistic properties of shear thickening fluid (STF)—Kevlar composites. In: Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes NUMIFORM 2004, Columbus (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosen, B.A., Laufer, C.H.N., Kalman, D.P., Wetzel, E.D., Wagner, N.J.: Multi-threat performance of kaolin-based shear thickening fluid (STF)-treated fabrics. In: Proceedings of Symposium and Exhibition of the Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering SAMPE 2007, Baltimore (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee, Y.S., Wetzel, E.D., Wagner, N.J.: The ballistic impact characteristics of Kevlar woven fabrics impregnated with a colloidal shear thickening fluid. J. Mater. Sci. 38, 2825–2833 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee, Y.S., Wetzel, E.D., Egres Jr., R.G., Wagner, N.J.: Advanced body armor utilizing shear thickening fluids. In: Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Composite Materials, San Diego (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wetzel, E.D., Wagner, N.J.: Advanced body armor utilizing shear thickening fluids. In: Presentation from 23rd Army Science Conference, Orlando (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bohannan, A.L.: Hypervelocity impact simulation using membrane particle-elements. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bohannan, A.L., Fahrenthold, E.P.: Hypervelocity impact simulation using membrane particle-elements. Int. J. Impact Eng. 35(12) (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bohannan, A.L., Fahrenthold, E.P.: Simulation of STF Kevlar shielding performance in a stuffed Whipple configuration. In: 50th AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, AIAA Paper 2009-2400 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rabb, R.J.: A mesomechanical particle-element model of impact dynamics in neat and shear thickening fluid Kevlar. Ph.D. thesis, The University of Texas at Austin (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rabb, R.J., Fahrenthold, E.P.: Evaluation of shear-thickening-fluid Kevlar for large-fragment-containment applications. J. Aircr. 48(1), 230–234 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pastore, R., Giannini, G., Morles, R., Marchetti, R., Micheli, D.: Impact response of nanofluid-reinforced antiballistic Kevlar fabrics, Chapter 9. In: Ebrahimi, F. (ed.) Nanocomposites—New Trends and Developments, pp. 215–238 (2012). ISBN 978-953-51-0762-0. http://www.issp.ac.ru/eboks/books/open/Nano-composites_-_New_Trends_and_Developments.pdf
  13. 13.
    Kang, J.T., Hong, K.H., Yoo, M.R.: Preparation and properties of fumed Sillica/Kevlar composite fabrics for application of stab resistant material. Fibers Polym. 11(5), 719–724 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gong, X., Xu, Y., Zhu, W., Xuan, S., Jiang, W.: Study of the knife stab and puncture-resistant performance for shear thickening fluid enhanced fabric. J. Compos. Mater. 1–17 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pacek, D., Zochowski, P., Wisniewski A.: Anti-trauma pads based on non-newtonian materials for flexible bulletproof inserts. In: Proceedings of 29th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 2116–2126, Edinburgh (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pacek, D.: Flexible bulletproof armor with modular interlayer. In: Proceedings of 30th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 2034–2045, Long Beach (2017)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    National Institute of Justice: Ballistic Resistance of Personal Body Armor—NIJ Standard-0101.04, June 2001Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Armour DevelopmentMilitary Institute of Armament TechnologyZielonkaPoland

Personalised recommendations