Limiting Drawing Ratio and Formability Behaviour of Dual Phase Steels—Experimental Analysis and Finite Element Modelling

  • R. L. AmaralEmail author
  • A. D. Santos
  • S. S. Miranda
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 98)


Three different dual-phase steels are selected (DP500, DP600 and DP780) to study and analyze the effect of microstructure on formability behaviour for this kind of materials, which are nowadays commonly used in sheet metal forming. This class of advanced high strength steels have a microstructure predominantly composed by a soft ferritic matrix, which ensures good formability, combined with hard martensite particles that give the material its strength. Moreover, the mechanical behaviour of dual-phase steels can be affected by the volume fraction of martensite present in the material matrix, thus providing different levels of formability. This paper presents a formability study and a limiting drawing ratio identification of dual-phase steel sheets, with different amounts of martensite, using a deep drawing test. Experiments and finite element simulations have been performed to analyze and compare the obtained results for this kind of advanced high strength steels. Different experimental tests have been performed with different loading conditions, such as tensile test, biaxial bulge test and Swift test in which formability can be dependent on mechanical properties of material and loading conditions. It is shown that selected materials have a decreasing formability with higher content of martensite, independently from the loading conditions or different material characteristics (e.g. different evolution of anisotropy with rolling direction).


Dual phase steels Sheet metal forming Limiting drawing ratio Swift test Deep drawing cylindrical cup 



Authors gratefully acknowledge the funding of SciTech, R&D project NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000022 cofinanced by NORTE2020, through FEDER and the financial support of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under project P2020-PTDC/EMS-TEC/6400/2014 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016876) by UE/FEDER through the program COMPETE 2020. The first author is also grateful to the FCT for the Doctoral grant SFRH/BD/119362/2016 under the program POCH, co-financed by the European Social Fund (FSE) and Portuguese National Funds from MCTES.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INEGI, Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringPortoPortugal
  2. 2.FEUP, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

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