Effects of Fiber Treatment on the Properties of Epoxy Curaua-Reinforced Composites

  • F. C. Amorim
  • J. F. B. Souza
  • J. M. L. ReisEmail author
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 98)


Natural fiber research is getting attention worldwide due to its sustainability and ecofriendly nature. It combines low density and interesting properties. Curaua fiber is an abundant natural fiber, which has low cost and several applications. The mechanical properties have a strong dependence on the interface adhesion between the fiber and the polymer matrix. In this work, surface modifications induced by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on Curaua fibers were studied in order to investigate NaOH as a chemical agent in fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites. Raw fibers were treated with 1%, 3% and 5 wt% sodium hydroxide solution for different periods of time (24, 72 and 168 h) at room temperature. Specimens of treated Curaua/Epoxy composites were tested and compared in tensile and in flexion to observe the mechanical properties. DMA analyses were performed to evaluate the composites physical properties due to temperature variation. Results showed that fibers treated with 5% of sodium hydroxide for 72 h produced improved superficial roughness increasing mechanical properties. The results also showed an increase in the viscoelastic stiffness of the epoxy matrix by the incorporation of Curaua fibers.


Natural fibers NaOH treatment Mechanical properties 



The author would like to thank the Research Directorate of the Southern Office of Aerospace Research and Development (SOARD), Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) for supporting the work presented here.


  1. 1.
    Milanese, A.C., Cioffi, M.O.H., Voorwald, H.J.C.: Mechanical behavior of natural fiber composites. Procedia Eng. 10, 2022–2027 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saba, N., Tahir, P.M., Jawaid, M.: A review on potentiality of nano filler/natural fiber filled polymer hybrid composites. Polymer 6, 2247–2273 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Malkapuram, R., Kumar, V., Yuvraj, S.N.: Recent development in natural fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 28, 1169–1189 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sain, M., Panthapulakkal, S.: Green fibre thermoplastic composites. In: Polymer Composites and the Environment. Woodhead Publishing, p. 181–206 (2014). ISBN 978-1-85573-739-6Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Spinacé, M.A.S., Fermoseli, K.K.G., De Paoli, M.A.: Recycled polypropylene reinforced with curaua fibers by extrusion. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 112(6), 3686–3694 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Almeida Júnior, J.H.S., Amico, S.C., Botelho, E.C., Amado, F.D.R.: Hybridization effect on the mechanical properties of curaua/glass fiber composites. Compos. Part B. 55, 492–497 (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thiré, R.M.S.M., Cardoso, P.H.M., Bastian, F.L.: Curaua fibers/epoxy laminates with improved mechanical properties: effects of fiber treatment conditions. Macromol. Symp. 344(1), 63–70 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ku, H., Wang, H., Pattarachaiyakoop, N., Trada, M.: A review on the tensile properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. Compos. Part B 42(4), 856–873 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferreira, S.F., Pepe, M., Martinelli, E., Silva, F.A., Filho, R.D.T.: Influence of natural fibers characteristics on the interface mechanics with cement based matrices. Compos. Part B 140, 183–196 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Faruk, O., Bledzki, A.K., Fink, H.P., Sain, M.: Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers: 2000–2010. Prog. Polym. Sci. 37, 1552–1596 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    ASTM D3039/D3039 M-14. Standard Test method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ASTM D790-10. Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Material (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ASTM D7028-07. Standard Test Method for Glass Transition Temperature (DMA Tg) of Polymer Matrix Composites by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Amorim, F.C., Souza, J.F.B., Reis, J.M.L. The quasi-static and dynamic mechanical behavior of epoxy matrix composites reinforced with Curaua fibers. Mat. Res. 21 Epub (2018). ISSN 1980-5373Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jawaid, M., Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., Hassan, A., Dungani, R., Hadiyane, A.: Effect of jute fibre loading on tensile and dynamic mechanical properties of oil palm epoxy composites. Compos. Part B Eng. 45(1), 619–624 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. C. Amorim
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. F. B. Souza
    • 1
  • J. M. L. Reis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Graduate Program in Mechanical EngineeringUniversidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringFederal Center for Technological Education of Rio de Janeiro, CEFET-RJ, UnED ItaguaíItaguaíBrazil

Personalised recommendations