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Physical Exercise and Heat Shock Proteins

  • Amin IsanejadEmail author
  • Hamid Amini
Chapter
Part of the Heat Shock Proteins book series (HESP, volume 16)

Abstract

Molecular chaperones consist of several highly conserved families of proteins, many of which consist of heat shock proteins. Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a group of cytoprotective proteins critical in the maintenance of protein and cellular homeostasis and protect the cell against further insults. HSP also can actively release to circulation and function as chaperokine. It has become suggested that they induced or activated with acute exercise or after chronic exercise training. It seems that a combination of thermal, oxidative and metabolic stress and muscle damage involved in exercise-induced HSP. These chaperones can play important role in biological response and adaptation by exercise. It is well known that the levels of certain molecular chaperones are elevated during stress to provide protection to the cell. For example stress response get disturbed in some conditions such as, cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer’s, furthermore in conditions that may stimulated disease such as aging. In the present chapter we discussed the role of exercise on these classes of chaperones in biology of exercise and human diseases. Exercise training, by improving the level of HSP, can help to amplify the stress response. These observations provided an opportunity to exploit protective role of HSP health and physical performance. Therefore, identifying the biological effects of these chaperons in exercise can lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms of exercise in medicine and exercise adaptation biology.

Keywords

Chaperones HSP Muscle adaptation Exercise training ROS Aging 

Abbreviations

ADT

Androgen deprivation therapy

BiP

Immunoglobulin binding protein

CCT

Chaperonin containing TCP-1 beta subunit

CK

Creatine kinase

CRP

C reactive protein

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

FOXOs

Forkhead box protein O1

GRP75

Glucose-regulated protein 75

GS

Glycogen synthase

GSK3αm

Glycogen synthase kinases α

HSF

Heat shock factor

HSF1

Heat shock factor1

HSP

Heat shock proteins

IKK

Inhibitor of NF-kb kinase

IL-6

Interleukin-6

IRE1a

Inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease-1

JNK

c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase

NFkB

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NGEMP

Nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins

NP22

Neuronal protein 22

P13K/AKT

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt

p38 MAPK

P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

PGC-1

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SIRT1

Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

TRL

Toll like receptor

UPR

Unfolded protein response

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Immunoregulation Research CenterShahed UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Sport Sciences DepartmentShahed UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

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