Advertisement

Semiconductors pp 575-583 | Cite as

Emerging Opportunities and Future Directions

  • Martin I. Pech-CanulEmail author
  • Socorro Valdez Rodríguez
  • Luis A. González
  • Nuggehalli M. Ravindra
Chapter

Abstract

In the previous nine chapters, the authors have attempted to provide the readers with topics ranging from the fundamentals of semiconductors to detailed discussions on the processing/synthesis, properties, and applications of current semiconductor materials, including group II–VI compounds, organic semiconductors, vanadium oxides, transition metal dichalcogenides, graphene-based materials, other miscellaneous semiconductors and related binary, ternary and quaternary compounds. This chapter summarizes and highlights the research opportunities reported in the recent literature and documented in the previous chapters. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films have proved to be promising for electronic and photonic applications. 2D and 3D graphene-based materials have found applications in the production of fuel cells, supercapacitors, and photovoltaic devices. CdS and ZnS thin films, produced by chemical bath deposition (CBD), particularly the activation of ZnS films in situ doped with Cu and Mn, has paved the way for doping with other alternative elements. At the same time, this route poses some potential challenges on the environment, health and safety. Among the 14 crucial research areas identified and outlined in the “SIA SRC Vision Report” of 2017 [4], the following 3 topics, namely, (i) Advanced Devices, Materials, and Packaging, (ii) Innovative Metrology and Characterization, and (iii) Environmental Health and Safety: Materials and Processes, provide to some extent, first-hand guidance for the short-term research endeavors concerning materials science and engineering. The integration of experimental and computational approaches to semiconductor materials and their manufacturing is another window of opportunity. The few that are currently available reports are mostly on organic semiconductors. It is expected that, by bringing the topics into focus by all stakeholders, i.e., academicians, researchers, and industrialists, all efforts will coalesce into substantial social and economic benefits.

Keywords

Emerging opportunities Future directions Environmental Health and safety Modified central paradigm Materials science and engineering Chemical bath deposition Vanadium oxides Graphene Organic semiconductors Recovery and recycling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge Cinvestav IPN (Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, in México) for the support and encouragement in the R&D in the semiconductor field, emphasizing the Environment, Health and Safety aspects.

References

  1. 1.
    Yu PY, Cardona M (2010) Fundamentals of semiconductors, physical and materials properties, 4th edn. Springer. ISBN: 978-3-642-00709-5Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Callister WD (ed) (1997) Materials science and engineering: an introduction, 4th edn. Wiley, New York, ISBN: 0-471-13459-7Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith WF (ed) (1990) Principles of materials science and engineering, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York. ISBN: 0-071-059169-5Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Isaacs D et al (2017) SIA SRC Vision Report 2017. https://www.semiconductors.org/…/SIA%20SRC%20Vision%20Report%203.30.17.pd
  5. 5.
    Théry V, Boulle A, Crunteanu A, Orlianges JC, Beaumont A et al (2017) Structural and electrical properties of large area epitaxial Vo” films grown by electron beam evaporation. J Appl Phys Am Inst Phys 121(5):055303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Seyfouri MM, Binions R (2017) Sol-gel approaches to thermochromic vanadium dioxide coating for smart glazing application. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 159:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maldiba IG et al (2017) Effects of gamma irradiations on reactive pulsed laser deposited vanadium dioxide thin films. Appl Surf Sci 411:271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malarde D et al (2017) Optimized atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition thermochromic VO2 thin films for intelligent window applications. ACS Omega 2(3):1040–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tang L, Ji R, Tian P, Kong J, Xiang J (2017) Functionalization of graphene by size and doping control and its optoelectronic applications. In: Proceeding of SPIE 10177, Infrared Technology and Applications, XLIII, 101770BGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ruhl G, Wittmann S, Koeing M, Neumaier D (2017) The integration of graphene into microelectronic devices. Beilstein J Nanotechnol 8:1056.  https://doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.8.107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tsang ACH, Kwok HYH, Leung DYC (2017) The use of graphene based materials for fuel cell, photovoltaics and supercapacitor electrode materials. Solid State Sci 67:A1–A14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang C, Dong H, Jian L, Hu W (2018) Organic semiconductor crystals. Chem Soc Rev 47:222.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c7cs00490gCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mei J, Diao Y, Appleton AL, Fang L, Bao Z (2013) Integrated materials design of organic semiconductors for field effect transistors. J Am Chem Soc 135:6724–6746,  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja400881nCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nair MTS, Nair PK (1994) Conversion of chemically deposited photosensitive CdS thin films to n-type by air annealing and ion exchange reaction. J Appl Phys 75:1557.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.356391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Orozco-Terán RA, Sotelo-Lerma M et al (1999) PbS-CdS bilayers prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique at different reaction temperatures. Thin Solid Films 343–344:587–590.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(98)01719-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sebastian PJ, Campos J, Nair PK (1993) The effect of post-deposition treatments on morphology, structure and opto-electronic properties of chemically deposited CdS thin films. Thin Solid Films 227:111–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carreón-Moncada I, González LA, Pech-Canul MI, Ramírez-Bon R (2013) Cd1−x1ZnxS thin films with low Zn content obtained by an ammonia-free chemical bath deposition process. Thin Solid Films 548:270–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carreón-Moncada I, González LA, Rodríguez-Galicia JL, Rendón-Angeles JC (2016) Chemical deposition of CdS films by an ammonia-free process with amino acids as complexing agents. Thin Solid Films 599:166–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    González LA, Carreón-Moncada I, Quevedo-López MA (2017) Negative differential resistance as effect of Zn doping of chemically processed CdS thin film transistors. Mater Lett 192:161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alvarez-Coronado AG, González LA, Rendón-Angeles JC, Ramírez-Bon R (2018) Study of the structure and optical properties of Cu and Mn in situ doped ZnS films by chemical bath deposition. Mater Sci Semicond Process 81:68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sathiya PN, Shalini Packiam Kumala S, Anbarasu V et al (2018) Characterization of CdS thin films and nanoparticles by a simple chemical bath technique. Mater Lett 220:161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mendivil-Reynoso T, Berman-Mendoza D, González LA, Castillo SJ, Apolinar-Iribe A, Gnade B, Quevedo-López MA, Ramírez-Bon R (2011) Fabrication and electrical characteristics of TFYs based on chemically deposited CdS films using glycine as a complexing agent. Semicond Sci Tecnol 26(115010):1–6Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Malinowska B, Rakib M, Durand G (2001) Ammonia recycling and cadmium confinement in chemical bath deposition of CdS thin layers. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl 9:389–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Malinowska B, Rakib M, Durand G (2002) Ammonia recycling and cadmium confinement in chemical bath deposition of CdS thin layers. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl 10:215–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pech-Canul MI, Kongoli F (2016) The modified central paradigm of materials science and engineering in the development of new and recycled materials. J Mineral Process Extr Metall 125(4):238–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nel A, Xia T, Mädler L, Lil N (2006) Toxic potential materials at nanolevel. Science 311:622–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mendicino L, Beu L (1997) Addressing environment, health and safety in semiconductors process development. In: IEEVCPMT International electronics manufacturing technology symposium, pp 129–133Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    International Roadmap for devices and systems, 2016, https://irds.ieee.org/images/files/pdf/2016_MM.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin I. Pech-Canul
    • 1
    Email author
  • Socorro Valdez Rodríguez
    • 2
  • Luis A. González
    • 1
  • Nuggehalli M. Ravindra
    • 3
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico NacionalRamos ArizpeMexico
  2. 2.Instituto de Ciencias Físicas-UNAMCuernavacaMexico
  3. 3.New Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations