Advertisement

Abstract

Worlwide an incredible number of females are made to suffer from sexual offense and discrimination. These norms are usually anchored in the respective patriarchal culture and aim to control womens's sexuality.Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), unfortunately, is such a practice beiing deeply rooted in traditional behavior. From a medical and/or humanitarian point of view FGM/C, therefore, is one of the biggest harms against women existing in the world today and likewise one of the most problematic culturally fixed burden that needs to be ended.

Literature

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency statement. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research; 2008. p. 1–48.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Connell HE, Sanjeevan KV, Hutson J. Anatomy of the clitoris. J Urol. 2005;174:1189–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    European Parliament. European parliament resolution of 24 March 2009 on combating female genital mutilation in the EU (2008/2071(INI)). 2009. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=//EP//NONSGML+TA+P6-TA-2009-0161+0+DOC+PDF+Vo//EN
  5. 5.
    Mack-Detlefsen B, Banaschak S, Boemers TM. Traumatic vulvar epithelial inclusion cysts following female genital mutilation (FGM). Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2015;75(9):945–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    WHO. A systemic review of the health complications of female genital mutilation including sequelae in childbirth. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000. p. 1–81.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abdulcadir J, Botsikas D, Bolmont M, Bilancioni A, Djema DA, Demicheli FB, Yaron M, Petignat P. Sexual anatomy and function in women with and without genital mutilation: a cross-sectional study. J Sex Med. 2016;13(2):226–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meffert JJ, Davis BM, Grimwood RE. Lichen sclerosus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32:393–416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burger MPM, Obdeijn MC. Complications after surgery for the relief of dyspareunia in women with lichen sclerosus: a case series. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016;95:467–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Neil SM, Lewis FM, Tatnall FM, Cox NH. British Association of Dermatologists’ guidelines for the management of lichen sclerosus. Br J Dermatol. 2010;63:672–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bradford J, Fischer G. Surgical division of labial adhesions in vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013;17:48–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee A, Bradford J, Fischer G. Long-term management of adult vulvar lichen sclerosus. A prospective cohort study of 507 women. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151:1061–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Höckel H, Dornhöfer N. Vulvovaginal reconstruction for neoplastic disease. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:559–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sideri M, Jones RW, Wilkinson EJ, Preti M, Heller DS, Scurry J, Haefner H, Neill S. Squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. 2004 Modified terminology, ISSVD Vulvar Oncology Subcommitee. J Reprod Med. 2005;50:807–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Faro S. Infections of the vulva, vagina, and cervix. In: Kovac SR, Zimmermann CW, editors. Advances in reconstructive vaginal surgery, vol. 2007. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 383–96.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stenchever MA, Mishell D, Herbst A. Infections of the lower genital tract. Comprehensive gynecology. St Louis: Mosby; 2001. p. 482–6.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    O’Dey DM, Bozkurt A, Pallua N. The anterior Obturator Artery Perforator (aOAP) flap: surgical anatomy and application of a method for vulvar reconstruction. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;119:526–30. Epub 2010 Sep 24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    O’Dey DM. Die rituelle Beschneidung der Klitorisregion: Anatomie und Wiederherstellung mittels Omega-Domed flap. Plast Chir. 2014;14(1):44–7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    O’Dey DM. Complex reconstruction of the vulva following female genital mutilation/cutting. Urologe. 2017;56(10):1298–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johnson C, Nour NM. Surgical techniques: defibulation of Type III female genital cutting. J Sex Med. 2007;4:1544–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seifeldin A. Genital reconstruction surgery after female genital mutilation. Obstet Gynecol Int J. 2016;4(6):00129.  https://doi.org/10.15406/ogij.201604.00129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Madzou S, Ouédraogo CMR, Gillard P, Lefebvre-Lacoeuille C, Catala L, Sentilhes L, Descamps P. Chirurgie plastique reconstructice du clitoris après mutilations sexuelles. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2001;56:59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    O’Dey DM. Rekonstruktion nach ritueller Beschneidung. Deutsche Hebammenzeitschrift. 2014;12:51–4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dan mon O’Dey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Hand SurgeryCenter of Reconstructive Surgery of Female Gender Characteristics, Luisenhospital AachenAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations