Forehead Flaps

  • Agnieszka K. Thompson
  • John A. CarucciEmail author


The forehead flap has been a staple in nasal reconstructive surgery dating back to 700 B.C. and continues to serve as a workhorse for sizeable nasal defects. Its roots trace back to India, where the rudimentary version of today’s forehead flap was employed as a reconstructive modality following nasal amputations as a form of punishment. Over the centuries, the forehead flap has evolved and been refined by reconstructive pioneers. The current version serves as an effective, reliable, reproducible flap providing a robust blood supply and excellent texture and quality match for nasal defects. Herein, we review the forehead flap and describe the scientific evidence supporting this flap as well as modifications, variations in execution and design, and complications. We will focus on recent advances in the literature in this area.


Blood supply Forehead flap Nasal reconstruction Paramedian forehead Flap 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dermatology, Surgery-Dermatologic, Aspirus Dermatology ClinicWausauUSA
  2. 2.Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, Dermatologic Surgery, NYU Dermatologic Surgical AssociatesNew YorkUSA

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