Advertisement

Blepharoplasty

  • Isabella Lai
  • R. Sonia Batra
Chapter

Abstract

Blepharoplasty is an operation focused on functional and/or cosmetic restoration of the eyelid by removal of redundant tissue. It is one of the most popular cosmetic procedures due to its relatively low risk profile and rapid visible improvement in facial aesthetics. Current methods of periorbital rejuvenation to restore youthful appearance are more conservative—grounded on concise preoperative evaluation and focused on limited skin resection. In this chapter, the authors present evidence for preoperative evaluation, decision-making and counseling of patients, surgical planning, various operative techniques, and postoperative care in functional and aesthetic blepharoplasty. Evidence on the postoperative complications and alternative complementary procedures is also discussed.

Keywords

Blepharoplasty Aesthetic facial surgery Upper eyelid Lower eyelid Transconjunctival incision Transcutaneous incision Dermatologic surgery 

References

  1. 1.
    New Statistics Reflect the Changing Face of Plastic Surgery. 2015. Available at: https://www.plasticsurgery.org/news/press-releases/new-statistics-reflect-the-changing-face-of-plastic-surgery. Accessed 3 Jan 2017.
  2. 2.
    Bartlett SP, Grossman R, Whitaker LA. Age-related changes of the craniofacial skeleton: an anthropometric and histologic analysis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;90(4):592–600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dryden RM, Kahanic DA. Worsening of blepharoptosis in downgaze. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;8(2):126–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meyer DR, et al. Quantitating the superior visual field loss associated with ptosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989;107(6):840.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Battu VK, et al. Improvement in subjective visual function and quality of life outcome measures after blepharoptosis surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121:677–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hahn S, Holds JB, Couch SM. Upper lid blepharoplasty. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2016;24(2):119–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Trussler AP, Rohrich RJ. MOC-PSSM CME article: blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121(1 Suppl):1–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    LaFerriere KA, Kilpatrick JK. Transblepharoplasty: subperiosteal approach to rejuvenation of the aging midface. Facial Plast Surg. 2003;19(2):157–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Freeman MS, et al. Transconjunctival sub-orbicularis oculi fat (SOOF) pad lift blepharoplasty: a new technique for the effacement of nasojugal deformity. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2000;2(1):403–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Perkins S, Batniji R. Rejuvenation of the lower eyelid complex. Facial Plast Surg. 2005;21(4):279–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rizk SS, Matarasso A. Lower eyelid blepharoplasty: analysis of indications and the treatment of 100 patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111(3):1299–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grant JR, LaFerriere KA. Periocular rejuvenation: lower eyelid blepharoplasty with fat repositioning and the suborbicularis oculi fat. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2010;18(3):399–409.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Viana GAP, Osaki MH, Nishi M. Clinical outcomes, patients’ satisfaction and aesthetic results after lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Revista do ColegioBrasileiro de Cirurgioes. 2011;38(5):317–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Figueroa C. Self-esteem and cosmetic surgery: is there a relationship between the two? Plast Surg Nurs: official journal of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgical Nurses. 2003;23(1):21–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chauhan N, et al. Perceived age change after aesthetic facial surgical procedures. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2012;14(4):1124–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trussler AP, Rohrich RJ. MOC-PSSM CME article: blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121(1 Suppl):1–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Friedland JA, Lalonde DH, Rohrich RJ. An evidence-based approach to blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126(6):2222–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hamawy AH, et al. Preventing and managing dry eyes after periorbital surgery: a retrospective review. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;123(1):353–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rees TD, LaTrenta GS. The role of the Schirmer’s test and orbital morphology in predicting dry-eye syndrome after blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1988;82(4):619–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rizk SS, Matarasso A. Lower eyelid blepharoplasty: analysis of indications and the treatment of 100 patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111(3):1299–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trussler AP, Rohrich RJ. MOC-PSSM CME article: blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121(1 Suppl):1–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Friedland JA, Lalonde DH, Rohrich RJ. An evidence-based approach to blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126(6):2222–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Griffin RY, et al. Upper lid blepharoplasty in patients with LASIK. Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands),. 2006;25(2):103–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hirmand H, et al. Prominent eye: operative management in lower lid and midfacial rejuvenation and the morphologic classification system. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110(2):620–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gladstone HB. Blepharoplasty: indications, outcomes, and patient counseling. Skin Therapy Lett. 2005;10(7):4–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    de Castro CC. A critical analysis of the current surgical concepts for lower blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114(3):785–93–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zoumalan CI, Roostaeian J. Simplifying blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;137(1):196e–213e.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Coleman WP. Cold steel surgery for blepharoplasty. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26(9):886–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Biesman BS. Blepharoplasty: laser or cold steel? Skin Therapy Lett. 2003;8(7):5–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    David LM, Sanders G. CO2 laser blepharoplasty: a comparison to cold steel and electrocautery. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1987;13(2):110–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morrow DM, Morrow LB. CO2 laser blepharoplasty. A comparison with cold-steel surgery. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1992;18(4):307–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Baker SS, et al. Laser blepharoplasty: diamond laser scalpel compared to the free beam CO2 laser. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28(2):127–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rokhsar CK, et al. The short pulse carbon dioxide laser versus the Colorado needle tip with electrocautery for upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Lasers Surg Med. 2008;40(2):159–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Niamtu J. Radiowave surgery versus CO 2 laser for upper blepharoplasty incision: which modality produces the most aesthetic incision? Dermatol Surg. 2008;34(7):912–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ritland JS, et al. Radiosurgery versus conventional surgery for dermatochalasis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20(6):423–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kashkouli MB, et al. Clinicopathologic comparison of radiofrequency versus scalpel incision for upper blepharoplasty. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24(6):450–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Arat YO, et al. Comparison of Colorado microdissection needle versus scalpel incision for aesthetic upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;33(6):430–3.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Afuwape O, et al. Diathermy versus scalpel incision in a heterogeneous cohort of general surgery patients in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Niger J Surg. 2015;21(1):43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lee BJ, et al. Advanced cutting effect system versus cold steel scalpel. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2014;2(10):e234.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kearns SR, et al. Randomized clinical trial of diathermy versus scalpel incision in elective midline laparotomy. Br J Surg. 2001;88(1):41–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Groot G, Chappell EW. Electrocautery used to create incisions does not increase wound infection rates. Am J Surg. 1994;167(6):601–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chalya P, et al. Diathermy versus scalpel incision in elective midline laparotomy: a prospective randomized controlled clinical study. East Cent Afr J Surg. 2013;18(1):71–7.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shukla H, Kumar V, Tewari M. A comparative study of scalpel and surgical diathermy incision in elective operations of head and neck cancer. Indian J Cancer. 2011;48(2):216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stupart DA, et al. Cautery versus scalpel for abdominal skin incisions: a double blind, randomized crossover trial of scar cosmesis. ANZ J Surg. 2016;86(4):303–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aird LNF, Brown CJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of electrocautery versus scalpel for surgical skin incisions. Am J Surg. 2012;204(2):216–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lessner AM, Fagien S. Laser blepharoplasty. Semin Ophthalmol. 1998;13(3):90–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Leclère FM, et al. Long-term outcomes of laser assisted blepharoplasty for ptosis: about 104 procedures in 52 patients. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2013;15(4):193–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hodshon RT, et al. Comparison of first-intention healing of carbon dioxide laser, 4.0-MHz radiosurgery, and scalpel incisions in ball pythons (Python regius). Am J Vet Res. 2013;74(3):499–508.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Friedland JA, Lalonde DH, Rohrich RJ. An evidence-based approach to blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126(6):2222–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ben Simon GJ, et al. External levator advancement vs Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection for correction of upper eyelid involutional ptosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140(3):426–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Brown MS, Putterman AM. The effect of upper blepharoplasty on eyelid position when performed concomitantly with Müller muscle-conjunctival resection. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;16(2):94–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Erb MH, et al. Effect of unilateral blepharoptosis repair on contralateral eyelid position. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20(6):418–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    McCulley TJ, et al. Outcome and influencing factors of external levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis advancement for blepharoptosis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;19(5):388–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rosenfield LK. The pinch blepharoplasty revisited. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115(5):1405–12. –4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    DiFrancesco LM, et al. Evaluation of conventional subciliary incision used in blepharoplasty: preoperative and postoperative videography and electromyography findings. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116(2):632–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liao C-K, et al. Dynamic analysis of modified transcutaneous lower blepharoplasty based on biochemical and biophysical principles. Ann Plast Surg. 2013;71(6):634–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Codner MA, Wolfli JN, Anzarut A. Primary transcutaneous lower blepharoplasty with routine lateral canthal support: a comprehensive 10-year review. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121(1):241–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kim EM, Bucky LP. Power of the pinch: pinch lower lid blepharoplasty. Ann Plast Surg. 2008;60(5):532–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    de Castro CC. A critical analysis of the current surgical concepts for lower blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114(3):785–93–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sultan B, Genther DJ, Perkins SW. Measurement of change in lower eyelid position in patients undergoing transcutaneous skin-muscle flap lower eyelid blepharoplasty. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2016;18(6):429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zarem HA, Resnick JI. Expanded applications for transconjunctival lower lid blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;103(3):1041–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Baylis HI, Long JA, Groth MJ. Transconjunctival lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Technique and complications. Ophthalmology. 1989;96(7):1027–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Baylis HI, et al. Blepharoplasty and periorbital surgery. Dermatol Clin. 1997;15(4):635–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Taban M, Taban M, Perry JD. Lower eyelid position after transconjunctival lower blepharoplasty with versus without a skin pinch. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24(1):7–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Griffin RY, Sarici A, Ozkan S. Treatment of the lower eyelid with the CO2 laser: transconjunctival or transcutaneous approach? Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2007;26(1):23–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Herbig K, et al. Combination Jessner’s solution and trichloroacetic acid chemical peel: technique and outcomes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124(3):955–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Roy D. Ablative facial resurfacing. Dermatol Clin. 2005;23(3):549–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yates B, et al. Laser treatment of periocular skin conditions. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(2):197–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Greene D, Koch RJ, Goode RL. Efficacy of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate tissue glue in blepharoplasty. A prospective controlled study of wound-healing characteristics. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 1999;1(4):292–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Scaccia FJ, Hoffman JA, Stepnick DW. Upper eyelid blepharoplasty. A technical comparative analysis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1994;120(8):827–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    KOUBA DJ, et al. Optimizing closure materials for upper lid blepharoplasty: a randomized, controlled trial. Dermatol Surg. 2011;37(1):19–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lee CK, Ahn ST, Kim N. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery. Clin Plast Surg. 2013;40(1):167–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chen WP-D, Park JDJ. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty: an update on indications and technique. Facial Plast Surg: FPS. 2013;29(1):26–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chee E, Choo CT. Asian blepharoplasty – an overview. Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands),. 2011;30(1):58–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gao Y, et al., 2016. Comparison of aesthetic facial criteria between Caucasian and East Asian female populations: an esthetic surgeon’s perspective. Asian J Surg. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1015958416301798
  76. 76.
    Rohrich RJ, et al. The anatomy of suborbicularis fat: implications for periorbital rejuvenation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124(3):946–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rohrich RJ, Ghavami A, Mojallal A. The five-step lower blepharoplasty: blending the eyelid-cheek junction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128(3):775–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Einan-Lifshitz A, et al. Volumetric rejuvenation of the tear trough with repo and Ristow. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29(6):481–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lelli GJ, Lisman RD. Blepharoplasty complications. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;125(3):1007–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    DeMere M, Wood T, Austin W. Eye complications with blepharoplasty or other eyelid surgery. A national survey. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1974;53(6):634–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hass AN, et al. Incidence of postblepharoplasty orbital hemorrhage and associated visual loss. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20(6):426–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zoumalan CI, et al. Evaluation of intraocular and orbital pressure in the management of orbital hemorrhage. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(9):1257. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18779487CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Carter SR, et al. Infection after blepharoplasty with and without carbon dioxide laser resurfacing. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(7):1430–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Suñer IJ, et al. Necrotizing fasciitis after cosmetic blepharoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128(3):367–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jordan DR, Mawn L, Marshall DH. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group a streptococcus infection after laser blepharoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125(2):265–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Goldberg RA, Li TG. Postoperative infection with group a beta-hemolytic Streptococcus after blepharoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134(6):908–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rees TD, Craig SM, Fisher Y. Orbital abscess following blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1984;73(1):126–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Juthani V, et al. Successful management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital cellulitis after blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126(6):305e–7e.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rainin EA, Carlson BM. Postoperative diplopia and ptosis. A clinical hypothesis based on the myotoxicity of local anesthetics. Arch Ophthalmol (Chicago, Ill: 1960). 1985;103(9):1337–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Korn BS, Kikkawa DO, Schanzlin DJ. Blepharoplasty in the post-laser in situ keratomileusis patient: preoperative considerations to avoid dry eye syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119(7):2232–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Baylis HI, Silkiss RZ. A structurally oriented approach to the repair of cicatricial entropion. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1987;3(1):17–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    McGraw BL, Adamson PA. Postblepharoplasty ectropion. Prevention and management. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117(8):852–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Syniuta LA, et al. Acquired strabismus following cosmetic blepharoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111(6):2053–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hayworth RS, et al. Diplopia following blepharoplasty. Ann Ophthalmol. 1984;16(5):448–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shorr N, Fallor MK. Madame Butterfly procedure: combined cheek and lateral canthal suspension procedure for post-blepharoplasty; and lower eyelid retraction. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1985;1(4):229–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Li TG, Shorr N, Goldberg RA. Comparison of the efficacy of hard palate grafts with acellular human dermis grafts in lower eyelid surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116(3):873–8. –80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lisman RD, Hyde K, Smith B. Complications of blepharoplasty. Clin Plast Surg. 1988;15(2):309–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stevenson D, Tauber J, Reis BL. Efficacy and safety of cyclosporin a ophthalmic emulsion in the treatment of moderate-to-severe dry eye disease: a dose-ranging, randomized trial. The cyclosporin a phase 2 study group. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(5):967–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vold SD, Carroll RP, Nelson JD. Dermatochalasis and dry eye. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;115(2):216–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    McElhinny ER, et al. Treatment of pseudoptosis secondary to aberrant regeneration of the facial nerve with botulinum toxin type a. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29(3):175–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mancini R, Khadavi NM, Goldberg RA. Nonsurgical management of upper eyelid margin asymmetry using hyaluronic acid gel filler. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27(1):1–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Goldberg RA, Fiaschetti D. Filling the periorbital hollows with hyaluronic acid gel: initial experience with 244 injections. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22(5):335–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Goldberg RA, et al. Treatment of lower eyelid retraction by expansion of the lower eyelid with hyaluronic acid gel. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23(5):343–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kaltreider S, et al. Cosmetic oculofacial applications of botulinum toxin a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(6):1159–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Coté TR, et al. Botulinum toxin type a injections: adverse events reported to the US food and drug administration in therapeutic and cosmetic cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53(3):407–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Emer J, Levy L. Complications of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures: prevention and management. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2012;5(2):121.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mancini R, et al. Nonsurgical considerations for addressing periocular aesthetics. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2014;16(6):451.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rohrich RJ, Ghavami A, Mojallal A. The five-step lower blepharoplasty: blending the eyelid-cheek junction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128(3):775–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabella Lai
    • 1
  • R. Sonia Batra
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.University of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Batra Dermatology, Santa MonicaCAUSA
  3. 3.Department of Dermatology, USC Keck School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations