Advertisement

Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

  • Frederic Shapiro
Chapter

Abstract

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is a disorder of the immature hip in which there are necrosis and subsequent repair of the bone and marrow of the femoral capital epiphyseal ossification center accompanied by a variable amount of damage to the epiphyseal and physeal cartilage and by a range of secondary changes in shape and size of the articular cartilage, the epiphyseal model of the femoral head, the bone of the femoral head, the physeal cartilage, and the acetabulum. The structural changes of the femoral head and acetabulum at skeletal maturity can vary from near normal to highly irregular, the more severe of which predispose the hip to degenerative arthritis in later years.

References

  1. 1.
    Waldenstrom H. Der obere tuberkulose collumherd. Zeitschr f Orthop Chir. 1909;24:487–512.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Calvé J. Sur une forme particuliere de pseudo-coxalgie. Rev Chir. 1910;42:54–84.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perthes G. Uber arthritis deformans juvenilis. Deutsche Ztschr f Chir. 1910;107:111–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Legg AT. An obscure affection of the hip joint. Boston Med Surg J. 1910;162:202–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sourdat P. La coxalgie en radiographie. Arch Prov Chir. 1910;19:330–50.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sundt H. Malum Coxae Calvé-Legg-Perthes. Zentralblatt f Chir. 1949;22:537–8.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Waldenstrom H. Coxa plana, osteochondritis deformans coxae, Calvé-Perthes’sche Krankheit, Legg’s disease. Zentralbl f Chir. 1920;47:539–42.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calvé J. Osteochondritis of the upper extremity of the femur. J Orthop Surg. 1921;3:489–92.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Legg AT. In “discussion”. J Bone Joint Surg. 1927;9:36.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Legg AT. Osteochondral trophopathy of the hip joint. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1916;22:307–23.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Legg AT. Remarks on the etiology of the flattening of the upper femoral epiphysis: a study of seventy-five personally observed cases. Am J Orthop Surg. 1918;16:448–52.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Allison N, Moody EF. Osteochondritis deformans juvenilis (Perthes’ disease). Am J Orthop Surg. 1915;13(2):197–216.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Legg AT. The end results of coxa plana. J Bone Joint Surg. 1927;9:26–34.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Calvé J. Coxa plana. La Press Med. 1921;29:383–5.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Calvé J. Quelques considerations sur la coxa plana denommee a tort osteochondrite de l’epiphyse superieure du femur. La Press Med. 1921;29:828–829.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peltier LF. The classic: concerning arthritis deformans juvenilis. Professor Georg C. Perthes. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981;158:5–9.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Perthes G. Ueber osteochondritis deformans juvenilis. Archiv f Klin Chir. 1913;101:779–807.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Perthes G. Uber osteochondritis deformans coxae. Klin Wochenschr. 1924;3:513–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Waldenstrom H. The definite form of the coxa plana. Acta Radiol. 1922;1:384–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Waldenstrom H. On coxa plana. Acta Chir Scand. 1923;55:577–90.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Waldenstrom H. The first stages of coxa plana. Acta Chir Scand. 1934;5:1–34.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Waldenstrom H. The first stages of coxa plana. J Bone Joint Surg. 1938;20:559–66.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Edgren W. Coxa plana. A clinical and radiological investigation with particular reference to the importance of the metaphyseal changes for the final shape of the proximal part of the femur. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1965;Suppl 84:1–129.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bahmanyar S, Montgomery SM, Weiss RJ, Ekbom A. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, other prenatal and perinatal factors, and the risk of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Pediatrics. 2008;122(2):e459–64.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Georgiadis AG, Seeley MA, Yellin JL, Sankar WN. The presentation of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in females. J Child Orthop. 2015;9:243–7.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Catterall A. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1982.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goff CW. Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome (LCPS). An up-to-date critical review. Clin Orthop. 1962;22:93–107.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Holdsworth FW. Epiphyseal growth: speculations on the nature of Perthes’s disease. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1966;39(1):1–16.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Siffert RS. Osteochondrosis of the proximal femoral epiphysis. Instructional course lectures, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Vol 22. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1972. p. 270–285.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shapiro F. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: a study of lower extremity length discrepancies and skeletal maturation. Acta Orthop Scand. 1982;53(3):437–44.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gill AB. Legg-Perthes disease of the hip: its early roentgenographic manifestations and its cyclical course. J Bone Joint Surg. 1940;23:1013–47.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bloch-Michel H, Benoist M, Salomon A, Duriez J, Morel G, Heripret G. Consequences chez l’adulte de l’osteochondrite de l’hanche. Rhumatologie. 1960;4:170–95.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fisher RL. An epidemiological study of Legg-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1972;54(4):769–78.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reichelt A, Huke B, Port J. Das verhalten der handstiefskelton wicklung beijuvelinen osteochondrosen und der epiphyseolysis capitis femoris. Z Orthop. 1973;11:763–7.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lauritzen J. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1975;159:1–137.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harrison MH, Turner MH, Jacobs P. Skeletal immaturity in Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1976;58(1):37–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH, Hall DJ, Vernon CL, Harrison MH. Perthes’ disease. An anthropometric study revealing impaired and disproportionate growth. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1978;60-B(4):461–77.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    DeGuembecker W, Duriez J. Osteochondrite de la hanche et maturation osseuse. Rev Chir Orthop. 1981;67:473–8.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bohr HH. Skeletal maturation in Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease. Int Orthop. 1979;2:277–81.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Katz JF, Siffert RS. Skeletal maturity in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Determination based on bone age of carpal centres. Int Orthop. 1977;1:227–30.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Girdany BR, Osman MZ. Longitudinal growth and skeletal maturation in Perthes’ disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 1968;6(2):245–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kristmundsdottir F, Burwell RG, Hall DJ, Marshall WA. A longitudinal study of carpal bone development in Perthes’ disease: its significance for both radiologic standstill and bilateral disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;209:115–23.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kristmundsdottir F, Burwell RG, Harrison MH. Delayed skeletal maturation in Perthes’ disease. Acta Orthop Scand. 1987;58(3):277–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cannon SR, Pozo JL, Catterall A. Elevated growth velocity in children with Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1989;9(3):285–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Eckerwall G, Wingstrand H, Hagglund G, Karlberg J. Growth in 110 children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease: a longitudinal infancy childhood puberty growth model study. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1996;5(3):181–4.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wynne-Davies R, Gormley J. The aetiology of Perthes’ disease. Genetic, epidemiological and growth factors in 310 Edinburgh and Glasgow patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1978;60(1):6–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Harper PS, Brotherton BJ, Cochlin D. Genetic risks in Perthes’ disease. Clin Genet. 1976;10(3):178–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harrison MH, Blakemore ME. A study of the “normal” hip in children with unilateral Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1980;62-B(1):31–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Katz JF. “Abortive” Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease or developmental variation in epiphyseogenesis of the upper femur. J Mt Sinai Hosp NY. 1965;32(6):651–9.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chivabongs A. Verlauft die Perthes’sche erkrankung vorwiegend einseitig? Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 1972;11:418–25.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Glueck CJ, Crawford A, Roy D, Freiberg R, Glueck H, Stroop D. Association of antithrombotic factor deficiencies and hypofibrinolysis with Legg-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1996;78(1):3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Glueck CJ, Freiberg R, Tracy T, Stroop D, Wang P. Thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis: pathophysiologies of osteonecrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1997;334:43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Balasa VV, Gruppo RA, Glueck CJ, et al. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and thrombophilia. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(12):2642–7.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hresko MT, McDougall PA, Gorlin JB, Vamvakas EC, Kasser JR, Neufeld EJ. Prospective reevaluation of the association between thrombotic diathesis and legg-perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84-A(9):1613–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gordon JE, Schoenecker PL, Osland JD, Dobbs MB, Szymanski DA, Luhmann SJ. Smoking and socio-economic status in the etiology and severity of Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2004;13(6):367–70.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ferguson AB, Howorth MB. Coxa plana and related conditions at the hip. J Bone Joint Surg. 1934;16:781–803.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kallio P, Ryoppy S, Kunnamo I. Transient synovitis and Perthes’ disease. Is there an aetiological connection? J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1986;68(5):808–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kallio P, Ryoppy S. Hyperpressure in juvenile hip disease. Acta Orthop Scand. 1985;56(3):211–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Suramo I, Puranen J, Heikkinen E, Vuorinen P. Disturbed patterns of venous drainage of the femoral neck in Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1974;56B(3):448–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Green NE, Griffin PP. Intra-osseous venous pressure in Legg-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1982;64(5):666–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Liu SL, Ho TC. The role of venous hypertension in the pathogenesis of Legg-Perthes disease. A clinical and experimental study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1991;73(2):194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Arnoldi CC, Linderholm H. Intracalcanean pressure in various forms of dysfunction of the venous pump of the calf. Acta Chir Scand. 1971;137(1):21–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kemp HB. Perthes’ disease: the influence of intracapsular tamponade on the circulation in the hip joint of the dog. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981;156:105–14.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kemp HB. Perthes’ disease: an experimental and clinical study. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1973;52(1):18–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Trueta J, Morgan JD. The vascular contribution to osteogenesis. I. Studies by the injection method. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1960;42-B:97–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Trueta J, Amato VP. The vascular contribution to osteogenesis. III. Changes in the growth cartilage caused by experimentally induced ischaemia. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1960;42-B:571–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sanchis M, Zahir A, Freeman MA. The experimental simulation of Perthes disease by consecutive interruptions of the blood supply to the capital femoral epiphysis in the puppy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1973;55(2):335–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zemansky AP Jr. The pathology and pathogenesis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease (osteochondritis juvenilis deformans coxae). Am J Surg. 1928;4:169–84.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Phemister DB. Operations for epiphysitis of the head of the femur (Perthes disease). Arch Surg. 1921;2:221–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Axhausen G. Der anatomische krankheitsablauf bei der koehlerschen krankheit der metatarsalkopfchen und der perthesschen krankheit des huftkopfes. Archiv f Klin Chir. 1923;124:530–42.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Axhausen G. Uber den abgrenzungsvorgang am epiphysaren knochen (Osteochondritis dissecans Konig). Virch Arch Path Anat. 1924;252:458–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Axhausen G. The classic: clinical and experimental observations about the etiology of arthritis deformans and especially the significance of the aseptic bone and cartilage necrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1975;106:2–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Heitzmann O. Epiphysenerkrankungen im wachstumsalter. Klin Wochenschr. 1923;2:397–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Riedel G. Beitrag zur pathologischen anatomie der osteochondritis deformans coxae juvenilis. Zentralbl f Chir. 1922;49:1447–50.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Walter H. Zur histologic und pathogenese der Perthesschen krankheit und der aseptischen knorpel-knochennekrosen uberhaupt. Arch f Orthop Unfall-Chir. 1925;23:672–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Konjetzny GE. Zur pathologie und pathologischen anatomie der Perthes-Calvé’schen krankheit (osteochondritis coxae deformans juvenilis). Acta Chir Scand. 1934;74:361–78.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rockemer K. Zur histopathogenese der Perthesschen krankheit, an der hand eines fruhfalles. Frank Zeit f Path. 1927;35:1–21.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schwarz E. Eine typische erkankung der oberen femurepiphyse. Beitr Klin Chir. 1914;93:1–61.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Delchef J. A propos de l’etiologie et de la pathogenie de l’osteochondrite de la hanche. Relation d'un cas. Rev Orthop. 1926;13:5–13.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lippmann RK. The pathogenesis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease based upon the pathologic findings in a case. Am J Surg. 1929;6:785–91.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nagasaka K. Histological study of 8 cases of osteochondritis deformans coxae juvenilis (Calvé-Legg-Perthes) [English abstract]. Fukuoka Acta Med. 1930;23:4.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nagasaka K. On the pathogenesis and etiology of the osteochondritis deformans coxae juvenilis (Calvé-Legg-Perthes) [English abstract]. Fukuoka Acta Med. 1930;23:4.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gall EA, Bennett GA. Osteochondritis deformans of the hip (Legg-Perthes disease) and renal osteitis fibrosa cystica. Arch Pathol. 1942;33:866–78.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Haythorn SR. Pathological changes found in material removed at operation in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1949;31A(3):599–611.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jonsater S. Coxa plana; a histo-pathologic and arthrografic study. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1953;12:5–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ponseti IV. Legg-Perthes disease: observations on pathological changes in two cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1956;38-A(4):739–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mizuno S, Hirayama M, Kotani PT, Simazu A. Pathological histology of the Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease with a special reference to its experimental production. Med J Osaka Univ. 1966;17(2):177–209.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dolman CL, Bell HM. The pathology of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1973;55(1):184–8.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Larsen EH, Reimann I. Calvé Perthes disease with special reference to histological observations. Acta Orthop Scand. 1973;44(4):426–38.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    McKibbin B, Ralis Z. Pathological changes in a case of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1974;56B(3):438–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    McKibbin B. Recent developments in Perthes disease. Recent Advances in Orthopaedics, Mckibbin B, editor. No. 2. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1975.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Jensen OM, Lauritzen J. Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease. Morphological studies in two cases examined at necropsy. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1976;58(3):332–8.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Inoue A, Freeman MA, Vernon-Roberts B, Mizuno S. The pathogenesis of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1976;58-B(4):453–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Inoue A, Ono K, Takaoka K, Yoshioka T, Hosoya T. A comparative study of histology in Perthes’ disease and idiopathic avascular necrosis of the femoral head in adults (IANF). Int Orthop. 1980;4(1):39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Catterall A, Pringle J, Byers PD, Fulford GE, Kemp HB. Perthes’ disease: is the epiphysial infarction complete? J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1982;64(3):276–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Catterall A, Pringle J, Byers PD, et al. A review of the morphology of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1982;64(3):269–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ponseti IV, Maynard JA, Weinstein SL, Ippolito EG, Pous JG. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Histochemical and ultrastructural observations of the epiphyseal cartilage and physis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65(6):797–807.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Katz JF. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The role of distortion of normal growth mechanisms in the production of deformity. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1970;71:193–8.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Salter RB. The present status of surgical treatment for Legg-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(6):961–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Salter RB. Legg-Perthes disease: the scientific basis for the methods of treatment and their indications. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:8–11.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Siffert RS, Feldman DJ. The growing hip: the dynamic development of the normal adult hip and the deformed hip of Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease. Acta Orthop Belg. 1980;46(4):443–76.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Shapiro F, Connolly S, Zurakowski D, Flynn E, Jaramillo D. Acetabular changes associated with avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a piglet model. Bone Joint Res. 2014;3:130–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kim HK, Su PH, Qiu YS. Histopathologic changes in growth-plate cartilage following ischemic necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis. An experimental investigation in immature pigs. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83-A(5):688–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Shapiro F, Connolly S, Zurakowski D, et al. Femoral head deformation and repair following induction of ischemic necrosis: a histologic and magnetic resonance imaging study in the piglet. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91(12):2903–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Salter RB. Experimental and clinical aspects of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1966;48:393–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Salter RB, Bell M. The pathogenesis of deformity in Legg-Perthes’ disease – an experimental investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1968;50:436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kenzora JE, Steele RE, Yosipovitch ZH, Glimcher MJ. Experimental osteonecrosis of the femoral head in adult rabbits. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;130:8–46.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rowe SM, Lee JJ, Chung JY, Moon ES, Song EK, Seo HY. Deformity of the femoral head following vascular infarct in piglets. Acta Orthop. 2006;77(1):33–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kim HK, Randall TS, Bian H, Jenkins J, Garces A, Bauss F. Ibandronate for prevention of femoral head deformity after ischemic necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis in immature pigs. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(3):550–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Little DG, McDonald M, Sharpe IT, Peat R, Williams P, McEvoy T. Zoledronic acid improves femoral head sphericity in a rat model of perthes disease. J Orthop Res. 2005;23(4):862–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kim HK, Morgan-Bagley S, Kostenuik P. RANKL inhibition: a novel strategy to decrease femoral head deformity after ischemic osteonecrosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21(12):1946–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Jaramillo D, Connolly SA, Vajapeyam S, et al. Normal and ischemic epiphysis of the femur: diffusion MR imaging study in piglets. Radiology. 2003;227(3):825–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Menezes NM, Connolly SA, Shapiro F, et al. Early ischemia in growing piglet skeleton: MR diffusion and perfusion imaging. Radiology. 2007;242(1):129–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kim HK. Pathophysiology and new strategies for the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(7):659–69.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jaramillo D, Villegas-Medina OL, Doty DK, et al. Age-related vascular changes in the epiphysis, physis, and metaphysis: normal findings on gadolinium-enhanced MRI of piglets. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182(2):353–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Jaramillo D, Villegas-Medina OL, Doty DK, et al. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging demonstrates abduction-caused hip ischemia and its reversal in piglets. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;166(4):879–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Trueta J. The normal vascular anatomy of the human femoral head during growth. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1957;39-B(2):358–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Glimcher MJ, Kenzora JE. The biology of osteonecrosis of the human femoral head and its clinical implications. III. Discussion of the etiology and genesis of the pathological sequelae; commments on treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1979;140:273–312.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rivas R, Shapiro F. Structural stages in the development of the long bones and epiphyses: a study in the New Zealand white rabbit. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84-A(1):85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    McKibbin B, Holdsworth FW. The nutrition of immature joint cartilage in the lamb. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1966;48(4):793–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Connolly SA, Jaramillo D, Hong JK, Shapiro F. Skeletal development in fetal pig specimens: MR imaging of femur with histologic comparison. Radiology. 2004;233(2):505–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jaramillo D, Connolly SA, Mulkern RV, Shapiro F. Developing epiphysis: MR imaging characteristics and histologic correlation in the newborn lamb. Radiology. 1998;207(3):637–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Babyn PS, Kim HK, Gahunia HK, et al. MRI of the cartilaginous epiphysis of the femoral head in the piglet hip after ischemic damage. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1998;8(3):717–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Jaramillo D, Kasser JR, Villegas-Medina OL, Gaary E, Zurakowski D. Cartilaginous abnormalities and growth disturbances in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology. 1995;197(3):767–73.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    de Sanctis N, Rega AN, Rondinella F. Prognostic evaluation of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease by MRI. Part I: the role of physeal involvement. J Pediatr Orthop. 2000;20(4):455–62.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Shapiro F. Bone development and its relation to fracture repair. The role of mesenchymal osteoblasts and surface osteoblasts. Eur Cell Mater. 2008;15:53–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Aya-ay J, Athavale S, Morgan-Bagley S, Bian H, Bauss F, Kim HK. Retention, distribution, and effects of intraosseously administered ibandronate in the infarcted femoral head. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22(1):93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Freund E. Zur deutung des rontgenbildes der Perthesschen krankheit. Fortschr Roent. 1930;42:435–64.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Brailsford JF. Osteochondritis. Br J Radiol. 1935;8:87–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kemp HS, Boldero JL. Radiological changes in Perthes’ disease. Br J Radiol. 1966;39(466):744–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Caffey J. The early roentgenographic changes in essential coxa plana: their significance in pathogenesis. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1968;103(3):620–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Comte F, De Rosa V, Zekri H, et al. Confirmation of the early prognostic value of bone scanning and pinhole imaging of the hip in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Nucl Med. 2003;44(11):1761–6.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Sutherland AD, Savage JP, Paterson DC, Foster BK. The nuclide bone-scan in the diagnosis and management of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1980;62(3):300–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Fisher RL, Roderique JW, Brown DC, Danigelis JA, Ozonoff MB, Sziklas JJ. The relationship of isotopic bone imaging findings to prognosis in Legg-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:23–9.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Tsao AK, Dias LS, Conway JJ, Straka P. The prognostic value and significance of serial bone scintigraphy in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1997;17(2):230–9.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lamer S, Dorgeret S, Khairouni A, et al. Femoral head vascularisation in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: comparison of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction MRI with bone scintigraphy. Pediatr Radiol. 2002;32(8):580–5.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Futami T, Kasahara Y, Suzuki S, Ushikubo S, Tsuchiya T. Ultrasonography in transient synovitis and early Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1991;73(4):635–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Wirth T, LeQuesne GW, Paterson DC. Ultrasonography in Perthes’ disease. Clinical relevance and influence on treatment. Int Orthop. 1993;17(5):300–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Scoles PV, Yoon YS, Makley JT, Kalamchi A. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(9):1357–63.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Dillman JR, Hernandez RJ. MRI of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. AJR. 2009;193:1394–407.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Henderson RC, Renner JB, Sturdivant MC, Greene WB. Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging in Legg-Perthes disease: a prospective, blinded study. J Pediatr Orthop. 1990;10(3):289–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Hoffinger SA, Henderson RC, Renner JB, Dales MC, Rab GT. Magnetic resonance evaluation of “metaphyseal” changes in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1993;13(5):602–6.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Uno A, Hattori T, Noritake K, Suda H. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in the evolutionary period: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with bone scintigraphy. J Pediatr Orthop. 1995;15(3):362–7.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Bos CF, Bloem JL, Bloem RM. Sequential magnetic resonance imaging in Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1991;73(2):219–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Kim HKW, Wiesman KD, Kulkarni V, Burgess J, Chen E, Brabham C, Ikram H, Du J, Lu A, Kulkarni AV, Demsey M, Herring JA. Perfusion MRI in early stage of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease to predict lateral pillar involvement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014;96:1152–60.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sales de Gauzy J, Kerdiles N, Baunin C, Kany J, Darodes P, Cahuzac JP. Imaging evaluation of subluxation in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: magnetic resonance imaging compared with the plain radiograph. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1997;6(4):235–8.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Cho TJ, Lee SH, Choi IH, Chung CY, Yoo WJ, Kim SJ. Femoral head deformity in Catterall groups III and IV Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: magnetic resonance image analysis in coronal and sagittal planes. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002;22(5):601–6.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kim HT, Wenger DR. “Functional retroversion” of the femoral head in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and epiphyseal dysplasia: analysis of head-neck deformity and its effect on limb position using three-dimensional computed tomography. J Pediatr Orthop. 1997;17(2):240–6.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Kim HT, Wenger DR. Surgical correction of “functional retroversion” and “functional coxa vara” in late Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and epiphyseal dysplasia: correction of deformity defined by new imaging modalities. J Pediatr Orthop. 1997;17(2):247–54.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Bergmann E. Theoretisches, klinisches und experimentelles zur Frage der aseptischen Knochennekrosen. Deutsche Ztschr f Chir. 1927;206:12–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Blanchard W. Treated and untreated osteochondritis juvenilis of the hip. J Am Med Assoc. 1917;69:1060–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Bergstrand I, Norman O. Die Krankheiten des Huftgelenks im Kindesalter. Der Radiologe. 1961;1(76)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Katz JF, Siffert RS. Capital necrosis, metaphyseal cyst and subluxation in coxa plana. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1975;106:75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Axer A, Schiller MG. The pathogenesis of the early deformity of the capital femoral epiphysis in Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome (L.C.P.S.). An arthrographic study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1972;84:106–15.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Catterall A. The natural history of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1971;53(1):37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Catterall A. Natural history, classification, and x-ray signs in Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease. Acta Orthop Belg. 1980;46(4):346–51.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Catterall A. Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981;158:41–52.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Gage HC. A possible early sign of Perthes’ disease. Br J Radiol. 1933;6:295–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Schlesinger I, Crider RJ. Gage’s sign–revisited! J Pediatr Orthop. 1988;8(2):201–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Norman A, Bullough P. The radiolucent crescent line--an early diagnostic sign of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Bull Hosp Joint Dis. 1963;24:99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ferguson AB Jr. The pathology of Legg-Perthes disease and its comparison with aseptic necrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1975;106:7–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Katz JF. Arthrography in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1968;50(3):467–72.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Herzog FG. A study of Perthes’ disease. Proc R Soc Med. 1950;54:1102.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Gallagher JM, Weiner DS, Cook AJ. When is arthrography indicated in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65(7):900–5.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Moberg A, Kaniklides C, Rehnberg L. Arthrography in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: evaluation of lateral subluxations. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1993;2:156–8.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Apley AG, Wientroub S. The sagging rope sign in Perthes’ disease and allied disorders. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1981;63-B(1):43–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Clarke NM, Harrison MH, Keret D. The sagging rope sign: a critical appraisal. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1983;65(3):285–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Robichon J, Desjardins JP, Koch M, Hooper CE. The femoral neck in Legg-Perthes’ disease. Its relationship to epiphysial change and its importance in early prognosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1974;56(1):62–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Smith SR, Ions GK, Gregg PJ. The radiological features of the metaphysis in Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1982;2(4):401–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Ellis W. Metaphysis in Perthes disease: a method of assessment and selection for treatment. J Pediatr Orthop. 1984;4(6):731–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Mindell ER, Sherman MS. Late results in Legg-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1951;33(A:1):1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Fabry G. Anteversion in Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease. Acta Orthop Belg. 1980;46(4):352–4.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Halkier E. The tear-shaped phenomenon in Calvé-Perthes’ disease. Acta Orthop Scand. 1956;25(4):287–95.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Joseph B. Morphological changes in the acetabulum in Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1989;71(5):756–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Huhnstock S, Svenningsen S, Pripp AH, Terjeson T, Wiig O. The acetabulum in Perthes’ disease: a prospective study of 123 children. J Child Orthop. 2014;8:457–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Yngve DA, Roberts JM. Acetabular hypertrophy in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1985;5(4):416–21.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Cahuzac JP, de Gauzy JS, Vidal H, Gaubert J. The acetabular opening angle in Perthes’ disease. Radiographic study of 62 unilateral cases. Acta Orthop Scand. 1992;63(3):278–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Grzegorzewski A, Synder M, Kozlowski P, Szymczak W, Bowen RJ. The role of the acetabulum in Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006;26(3):316–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Madan S, Fernandes J, Taylor JF. Radiological remodelling of the acetabulum in Perthes’ disease. Acta Orthop Belg. 2003;69(5):412–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Sankar WN, Flynn JM. The development of acetabular retroversion in children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 2008;28(4):440–3.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Herring JA, Williams JJ, Neustadt JN, Early JS. Evolution of femoral head deformity during the healing phase of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1993;13(1):41–5.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Reinker KA, Larsen IJ. Patterns of progression in Legg-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1983;3(4):455–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Somerville EW. Perthes’ disease of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1971;53(4):639–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Katz JF. Late modelling changes in Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease (LCPD) with continuing growth to maturity. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:115–24.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Allen BL Jr. Graphic analysis of femoral growth in young children with Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1997;17(2):255–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Harry JD, Gross RH. A quantitative method for evaluating results of treating Legg-Perthes syndrome. J Pediatr Orthop. 1987;7(6):671–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Ratliff AH. Osteochondritis dissecans following Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1967;49(1):108–11.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Evans DL. Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease: a study of late results. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1958;40-B(2):168–81.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Freehafer AA. Osteochondritis dissecans following Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. A report of one case. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960;42-A:777–82.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Hallel T, Salvati EA. Osteochondritis dissecans following Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976;58(5):708–11.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Osterman K, Lindholm TS. Osteochondritis dissecans following Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;152:247–54.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Morris ML, McGibbon KC. Osteochondritis dissecans following Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1962;44B:562–4.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Bowen JR, Kumar VP, Joyce JJ 3rd, Bowen JC. Osteochondritis dissecans following Perthes’ disease. Arthroscopic-operative treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;209:49–56.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Grossbard GD. Hip pain during adolescence after Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1981;63B(4):572–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Kruse RW, Guille JT, Bowen JR. Shelf arthroplasty in patients who have Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. A study of long-term results. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1991;73(9):1338–47.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Reinker KA. Early diagnosis and treatment of hinge abduction in Legg-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1996;16(1):3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Keret D, Harrison MH, Clarke NM, Hall DJ. Coxa plana--the fate of the physis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(6):870–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Thompson GH, Westin GW. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: results of discontinuing treatment in the early reossification phase. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1979;139:70–80.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Barnes JM. Premature epiphysial closure in Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1980;62-B(4):432–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Bowen JR, Schreiber FC, Foster BK, Wein BK. Premature femoral neck physeal closure in Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982;171:24–9.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Mirovsky Y, Axer A, Hendel D. Residual shortening after osteotomy for Perthes’ disease. A comparative study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1984;66(2):184–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Gower WE, Johnston RC. Legg-Perthes disease. Long-term follow-up of thirty-six patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1971;53(4):759–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Leitch JM, Paterson DC, Foster BK. Growth disturbance in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and the consequences of surgical treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;262:178–84.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Willner S. Difference in leg length in children with coxa plana during and after treatment using unilateral unloading. Acta Orthop Scand. 1975;46(1):102–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ippolito E, Tudisco C, Farsetti P. Long-term prognosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease developing during adolescence. J Pediatr Orthop. 1985;5(6):652–6.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Nakamura J, Kamegaya M, Saisu T, Kakizaki J, Hagiwara S, Ohtori S, Orita S, Takahashi K. Outcome of patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes onset before 6 years of age. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015;35:144–50.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Snyder CR. Legg-Perthes disease in the young hip--does it necessarily do well? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1975;57(6):751–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Rosenfeld SB, Herring JA, Chao JC. Legg-calve-perthes disease: a review of cases with onset before six years of age. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(12):2712–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Schoenecker PL, Stone JW, Capelli AM. Legg-Perthes disease in children under 6 years old. Orthop Rev. 1993;22(2):201–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Fabry K, Fabry G, Moens P. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in patients under 5 years of age does not always result in a good outcome. Personal experience and meta-analysis of the literature. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2003;12(3):222–7.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Herring JA, Neustadt JB, Williams JJ, Early JS, Browne RH. The lateral pillar classification of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1992;12(2):143–50.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Salter RB, Thompson GH. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The prognostic significance of the subchondral fracture and a two-group classification of the femoral head involvement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(4):479–89.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    O’Garra JA. The radiographic changes in Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1959;41-B:465–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Hirohashi K, Kanbara T, Kuroda K, Okajima M, Hyashi M, Shimazu A. Perthes’ disease--a classification based on the extent of epiphyseal and metaphyseal involvement. Int Orthop. 1980;4(1):47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Van Dam BE, Crider RJ, Noyes JD, Larsen LJ. Determination of the Catterall classification in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1981;63(6):906–14.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Murphy RP, Marsh HO. Incidence and natural history of “head at risk” factors in Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;132:102–7.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Dickens DR, Menelaus MB. The assessment of prognosis in Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1978;60-B(2):189–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Farsetti P, Tudisco C, Caterini R, Potenza V, Ippolito E. The Herring lateral pillar classification for prognosis in Perthes disease. Late results in 49 patients treated conservatively. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1995;77(5):739–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Herring JA, Kim HT, Browne R. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Part I: classification of radiographs with use of the modified lateral pillar and Stulberg classifications. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(10):2103–20.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Lappin K, Kealey D, Cosgrove A. Herring classification: how useful is the initial radiograph? J Pediatr Orthop. 2002;22(4):479–82.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Herring JA, Lundeen MA, Wenger DR. Minimal Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1980;62-B(1):25–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Pedersen EK. Dysplasia epiphysealis capitis femoris. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1960;42B:663.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Meyer J. Dysplasia epiphysealis capitis femoris. A clinical-radiological syndrome and its relationship to Legg-Calv’e-Perthes disease. Acta Orthop Scand. 1964;34:183–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Khermosh O, Wientroub S. Dysplasia epiphysealis capitis femoris. Meyer’s dysplasia. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1991;73(4):621–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Rowe SM, Chung JY, Moon ES, Yoon TR, Jung ST, Kim SS. Dysplasia epiphysealis capitis femoris: Meyer dysplasia. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005;25(1):18–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Wiig O, Huhnstock S, Terjesen T, Pripp AH, Svenningsen S. The outcome and prognostic factors in children with bilateral Perthes’ disease. A prospective study of 40 children with follow-up over five years. Bone Joint J. 2016;98B:569–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Guille JT, Lipton GE, Tsirikos AI, Bowen JR. Bilateral Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: presentation and outcome. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002;22(4):458–63.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Mukherjee A, Fabry G. Evaluation of the prognostic indices in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: statistical analysis of 116 hips. J Pediatr Orthop. 1990;10(2):153–8.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Ritterbusch JF, Shantharam SS, Gelinas C. Comparison of lateral pillar classification and Catterall classification of Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1993;13(2):200–2.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Christensen F, Soballe K, Ejsted R, Luxhoj T. The Catterall classification of Perthes’ disease: an assessment of reliability. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1986;68(4):614–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Joseph B, Varghese G, Mulpuri K, Narasimha Rao KL, Nair NS. Natural evolution of Perthes disease: a study of 610 children under 12 years of age at disease onset. J Pediatr Orthop. 2003;23(5):590–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Hyman JE, Trupia EP, Wright ML, Matsumoto H, Jo C-H, Mulpuri K, Joseph B, Kim HKW, et al. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the modified Waldenström classification system for staging of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015;97:643–50.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Sundt H. Further investigations respecting malum coxae Calvé-Legg-Perthes with special regard to the prognosis and treatment. Acta Chir Scand Suppl. 1949;148:1–101.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Stulberg SD, Cooperman DR, Wallensten R. The natural history of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1981;63(7):1095–108.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Butel PJ, Borgi R, Oberlin P. L’association du traitement chirurgical a la decharge ambulatiore dans la maladie de Legg-Calvé-Perthes: experience de quinze ans portant sur 112 cas. Acta Orthop Belg. 1980;46:423–7.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Mose K. Methods of measuring in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease with special regard to the prognosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:103–9.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Eyre-Brook AL. Osteochondritis deformans coxae juvenilis or Perthes’ disease: the results of treatment by traction in recumbency. Br J Surg. 1936;24:166–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Sjovall H. Zur frage der behandlung der coxa plana. Acta Orthop Scand. 1942;13:324–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Herndon CH, Heyman CH. Legg-Perthes disease: an evaluation of treatment by traction and ischial weight-bearing brace. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1952;34-A(1):25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Heyman CH, Herndon CH. Legg-Perthes disease: a method for the measurement of the roentgenographic result. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1950;32(A:4):767–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Severin E. Congenital dislocation of the hip joint. Late results of closed reduction and arthrographic studies of recent cases. Acta Chir Scand Suppl. 1941;84:1–142.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Meyer J. Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Assessment of therapeutic results with particular reference to the value of traction in bed. Acta Orthop Scand. 1966;Suppl 86:89–111.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Katz JF. Conservative treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1967;49(6):1043–51.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Green NE, Beauchamp RD, Griffin PP. Epiphyseal extrusion as a prognostic index in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1981;63(6):900–5.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Sponseller PD, Desai SS, Millis MB. Comparison of femoral and innominate osteotomies for the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988;70(8):1131–9.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Shigeno Y, Evans GA. Revised arthrographic index of deformity for Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1996;5(1):44–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Shigeno Y, Evans GA. Quantitative correlation between the initial and final femoral head deformity in Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1996;5(1):48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    McAndrew MP, Weinstein SL. A long-term follow-up of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(6):860–9.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Eaton GO. Long-term results of treatment in coxa plana. A follow-up study of eighty-eight patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1967;49(6):1031–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Ratliff AH. Perthes’ disease. A study of thirty-four hips observed for thirty years. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1967;49(1):102–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Danielsson LG, Hernborg J. Late results of Perthes’ disease. Acta Orthop Scand. 1965;36:70–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Perpich M, McBeath A, Kruse D. Long-term follow-up of Perthes disease treated with spica casts. J Pediatr Orthop. 1983;3(2):160–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Catterall A. Adolescent hip pain after Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;209:65–9.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Clarke NM, Harrison MH. Painful sequelae of coxa plana. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65(1):13–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Yrjonen T. Prognosis in Perthes’ disease after noncontainment treatment. 106 hips followed for 28–47 years. Acta Orthop Scand. 1992;63(5):523–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Herring JA. The treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. A critical review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994;76(3):448–58.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Herring JA. Management of Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1996;16(1):1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Lloyd-Roberts GC. The management of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1982;64(1):1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Rich MM, Schoenecker PL. Management of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease using an A-frame orthosis and hip range of motion: a 25-year experience. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013;33:112–9.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Wenger DR, Ward WT, Herring JA. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1991;73(5):778–88.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Flemming Moller P. The clinical observations after healing of Calvé-Perthes’ disease compared with the final deformities left by that disease, and the bearing of those find deformities on the ultimate prognosis. Acta Radiol. 1926;5:1–36.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Meyer J. Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease. Radiological results of treatment and their late clinical consequences. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1977;167:3–131.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Mose K, Hjorth L, Ulfeldt M, Christensen ER, Jensen A. Legg Calvé Perthes disease. The late occurrence of coxarthrosis. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1977;169:1–39.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Norlin R, Hammerby S, Tkaczuk H. The natural history of Perthes’ disease. Int Orthop. 1991;15(1):13–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Ralston EL. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: factors in healing. J Bone Joint Surg. 1961;43A:249–60.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Broder H. The late results in Legg-Perthes’ disease and factors influencing them: a study of one hundred and two cases. Bull Hosp Joint Dis. 1953;14(2):194–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Gossling HR. Legg-Perthes disease. Part II. Treatment by recumbency. Instructional Course Lectures, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Vol 22. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1972. p. 296–301.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Salter RB. Legg-Perthes disease. Part V. Treatment by innominate osteotomy. Instructional course lectures, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Vol 22. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1973. p. 309–316.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Danforth MS. The treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease without weight bearing. J Bone Joint Surg. 1934;56A:516–34.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Pike MM. Legg-Perthes disease; a method of conservative treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1950;32-A(3):663–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Pedersen HE, McCarroll HR. Treatment in Legg-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1951;33-A(3):591–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    O’Hara JP, Davis ND, Gage JR, Sundberg AB, Winter RB. Long-term follow-up of Perthes’ disease treated nonoperatively. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1977;125:49–56.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Kelly FB Jr, Canale ST, Jones RR. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Long-term evaluation of non-containment treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1980;62(3):400–7.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Harrison MH, Menon MP. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The value of roentgenographic measurement in clinical practice with special reference to the broomstick plaster method. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1966;48(7):1301–18.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Kendig RJ, Evans GA. Biologic osteotomy in Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1986;6(3):278–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Bohr HH. On the development and course of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease (LCPD). Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:30–5.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Brotherton BJ, McKibbin B. Perthes’ disease treated by prolonged recumbency and femoral head containment: a long-term appraisal. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1977;59(1):8–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Harrison MH, Turner MH, Nicholson FJ. Coxa plana. Results of a new form of splinting. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51(6):1057–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Harrison MH, Turner MH, Smith DN. Perthes’ disease. Treatment with the Birmingham splint. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1982;64(1):3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Kamhi E, MacEwen GD. Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Prognostic value of Catterall’s classification. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1975;57(5):651–4.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Petrie JG, Bitenc I. The abduction weight-bearing treatment in Legg-Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1971;53(1):54–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Kiepurska A. Late results of treatment in Perthes’ disease by a functional method. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;272:76–81.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Richards BS, Coleman SS. Subluxation of the femoral head in coxa plana. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1987;69(9):1312–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Curtis BH, Gunther SF, Gossling HR, Paul SW. Treatment for Legg-Perthes disease with the Newington ambulation-abduction brace. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1974;56(6):1135–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Gunther SF, Gossling HR.. Legg-Perthes disease. Part IV. Treatment by abduction-ambulation. Instructional course lectures, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Vol 22. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1972. p. 305–309.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Purvis JM, Dimon JH 3rd, Meehan PL, Lovell WW. Preliminary experience with the Scottish Rite Hospital abduction orthosis for Legg-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:49–53.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Martinez AG, Weinstein SL, Dietz FR. The weight-bearing abduction brace for the treatment of Legg-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992;74(1):12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Meehan PL, Angel D, Nelson JM. The Scottish Rite abduction orthosis for the treatment of Legg-Perthes disease. A radiographic analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992;74(1):2–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Roposch A, Mayr J, Linhart WE. Age at onset, extent of necrosis, and containment in Perthes disease. Results at maturity. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2003;123(2–3):68–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Wiig O, Terjesen T, Svenningsen S. Prognostic factors and outcome of treatment in Perthes’ disease: a prospective study of 368 patients with five-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90(10):1364–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Rab GT. Containment of the hip: a theoretical comparison of osteotomies. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981;154:191–6.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Marklund T, Tillberg B. Coxa plana: a radiological comparison of the rate of healing with conservative measures and after osteotomy. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1976;58(1):25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Lee DY, Seong SC, Choi IH, Chung CY, Chang BS. Changes of blood flow of the femoral head after subtrochanteric osteotomy in Legg-Perthes’ disease: a serial scintigraphic study. J Pediatr Orthop. 1992;12(6):731–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Clancy M, Steel HH. The effect of an incomplete interochanteric osteotomy on Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67(2):213–6.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Soeur R, DeRacker CH. L’aspect anatomopathologique de l’osteochondrite et les theories pathogeniques qui s’y rapportent. Acta Orthop Belg. 1952;18:57–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Axer A. Subtrochanteric osteotomy in the treatment of Perthes’ disease: a preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1965;47:489–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Axer A, Schiller MG, Segal D, Rzetelny V, Gershuni-Gordon DH. Subtrochanteric osteotomy in the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ syndrome (L.C.P.S.). Acta Orthop Scand. 1973;44(1):31–54.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Axer A, Gershuni DH, Hendel D, Mirovski Y. Indications for femoral osteotomy in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:78–87.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Klisic P, Blazevic U, Seferovic O. Approach to treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:54–9.Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    Trias A. Femoral osteotomy in Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;137:195–207.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Puranen J, Heikkinen E. Intertrochanteric osteotomy in the treatment of Perthes’ disease. Acta Orthop Scand. 1976;47(1):79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Kim HK, da Cunha AM, Browne R, Kim HT, Herring JA. How much varus is optimal with proximal femoral osteotomy to preserve the femoral head in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(4):341–7.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Weiner SD, Weiner DS, Riley PM. Pitfalls in treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease using proximal femoral varus osteotomy. J Pediatr Orthop. 1991;11(1):20–4.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Menelaus MB. Lessons learned in the management of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;209:41–8.Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Evans IK, Deluca PA, Gage JR. A comparative study of ambulation-abduction bracing and varus derotation osteotomy in the treatment of severe Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in children over 6 years of age. J Pediatr Orthop. 1988;8(6):676–82.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Clothier JC. The behavior of upper femoral osteotomies performed for Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Sur Br. 1979;61B:517–8.Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Heikkinen E, Puranen J. Evaluation of femoral osteotomy in the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:60–8.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Talkhani IS, Moore DP, Dowling FE, Fogarty EE. Neck-shaft angle remodelling after derotation varus osteotomy for severe Perthes disease. Acta Orthop Belg. 2001;67(3):248–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Hoikka V, Lindholm TS, Poussa M. Intertrochanteric varus osteotomy in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: a report of 112 hips. J Pediatr Orthop. 1986;6(5):600–4.Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    Cordeiro EN. Femoral osteotomy in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:69–72.Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Karpinski MR, Newton G, Henry AP. The results and morbidity of varus osteotomy for Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;209:30–40.Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Haraldsson S. Derotation varisation osteotomy in the treatment of Perthes’ disease. Acta Orthop Scand. 1973;44:105–8.Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    Laurent LE, Poussa M. Intertrochanteric varus osteotomy in the treatment of Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:73–7.Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    McElwain JP, Regan BF, Dowling F, Fogarty E. Derotation varus osteotomy in Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1985;5(2):195–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Lloyd-Roberts GC, Catterall A, Salamon PB. A controlled study of the indications for and the results of femoral osteotomy in Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1976;58(1):31–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Canario AT, Williams L, Wientroub S, Catterall A, Lloyd-Roberts GC. A controlled study of the results of femoral osteotomy in severe Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1980;62-B(4):438–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Coates CJ, Paterson JM, Woods KR, Catterall A, Fixsen JA. Femoral osteotomy in Perthes’ disease. Results at maturity. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990;72(4):581–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Herring JA, Kim HT, Browne R. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Part II: prospective multicenter study of the effect of treatment on outcome. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(10):2121–34.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Jani LF, Dick W. Results of three different therapeutic groups in Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;150:88–94.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Joseph B, Nair NS, Narasimha Rao KL, Mulpuri K, Varghese G. Optimal timing for containment surgery for Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 2003;23(5):601–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Shohat N, Copeliovitch L, Smorgick Y, Atzmon R, Mirovsky Y, Shabshin N, Beer Y, Agar G. The long-term outcome after varus derotational osteotomy for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016;98:1277–85.Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Robinson HJ Jr, Putter H, Sigmond MB, O’Connor S, Murray KR. Innominate osteotomy in Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1988;8(4):426–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Barer M. Role of innominate osteotomy in the treatment of children with Legg-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;135:82–9.Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Dekker M, van Rens TJG, Slooff TJJH. Salter’s pelvic osteotomy in the treatment of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1981;63B:282.Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Maxted MJ, Jackson RK. Innominate osteotomy in Perthes’ disease. A radiological survey of results. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1985;67(3):399–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Ingman AM, Paterson DC, Sutherland AD. A comparison between innominate osteotomy and hip spica in the treatment of Legg-Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982;163:141–7.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Paterson DC, Leitch JM, Foster BK. Results of innominate osteotomy in the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;266:96–103.Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    Canale ST, D’Anca AF, Cotler JM, Snedden HE. Innominate osteotomy in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1972;54(1):25–40.Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Stevens PM, Williams P, Menelaus M. Innominate osteotomy for Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1981;1(1):47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Bernbeck R. Zur Pathogenese der jugendlichen huftkopfnekrose. Archiv f Orthop Unfallchir. 1951;44:164–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Bernbeck R. Kritisches zum Perthes-Problem der Hufte. Archiv fur Orthop Unfallchir. 1951;44:445–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Fulford GE, Lunn PG, Macnicol MF. A prospective study of nonoperative and operative management for Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1993;13(3):281–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Cooperman DR, Stulberg SD. Ambulatory containment treatment in Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;203:289–300.Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Uyttendaele D, de Kelver L, Croene P, Fabry G. Conservative treatment of in Perthes’ disease: a comparison between containment and non containment methods of treatment. Acta Orthop Belg. 1980;46(4):414–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Karadimas JE. Conservative treatment of coxa plana. A comparison of the early results of different methods. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1971;53(2):315–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Lahdes-Vasama TT, Marttinen EJ, Merikanto JE. Outcome of Perthes’ disease in unselected patients after femoral varus osteotomy and splintage. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1997;6(4):229–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Matan AJ, Stevens PM, Smith JT, Santora SD. Combination trochanteric arrest and intertrochanteric osteotomy for Perthes’ disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 1996;16(1):10–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Lloyd-Roberts GC, Wetherill MH, Fraser M. Trochanteric advancement for premature arrest of the femoral capital growth plate. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1985;67(1):21–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Doudoulakis JK. Trochanteric advancement for premature arrest of the femoral-head growth plate. 6-year review of 30 hips. Acta Orthop Scand. 1991;62(2):92–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Bennett JT, Mazurek RT, Cash JD. Chiari’s osteotomy in the treatment of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1991;73(2):225–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Carsi B, Judd J, Clarke NMP. Shelf acetabuloplasty for containment in the early stages of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015;35:151–6.Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Kadhim M, Holmes L Jr, Bowen JR. The role of shelf acetabuloplasty in early and late stages of Perthes disease: a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Child Orthop. 2012;6:379–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Domzalski ME, Glutting J, Bowen JR, Littleton AG. Lateral acetabular growth stimulation following a labral support procedure in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88(7):1458–66.Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Villet L, Laville JM. Shelf acetabuloplasty in Legg-Perthes-Calvé disease. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2003;89(3):234–41.Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Jacobs R, Moens P, Fabry G. Lateral shelf acetabuloplasty in the early stage of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease with special emphasis on the remaining growth of the acetabulum: a preliminary report. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2004;13(1):21–8.Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    Daly K, Bruce C, Catterall A. Lateral shelf acetabuloplasty in Perthes’ disease. A review of the end of growth. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1999;81(3):380–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Van Der Geest IC, Kooijman MA, Spruit M, Anderson PG, De Smet PM. Shelf acetabuloplasty for Perthes’ disease: 12-year follow-up. Acta Orthop Belg. 2001;67(2):126–31.Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    Hsu JE, Baldwin KD, Tannast M, Hosalkar H. What is the evidence supporting the prevention of osteoarthritis and improved femoral coverage after shelf procedure for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470(9):2421–30.Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    Ghanem I, Haddad E, Haidar R, et al. Lateral shelf acetabuloplasty in the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: improving mid-term outcome in severely deformed hips. J Child Orthop. 2010;4(1):13–20.Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    Garceau GJ. Surgical treatment of coxa plana. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1964;46B:779–80.Google Scholar
  351. 351.
    McKay DW. Cheilectomy of the hip. Orthop Clin North Am. 1980;11(1):141–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Rowe SM, Jung ST, Cheon SY, Choi J, Kang KD, Kim KH. Outcome of cheilectomy in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: minimum 25-year follow-up of five patients. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006;26(2):204–10.Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Harrison MH. A preliminary account of the management of the painful hip originating from Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;209:57–64.Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    Quain S, Catterall A. Hinge abduction of the hip. Diagnosis and treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1986;68(1):61–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Urlus M, Stoffelen D, Fabry G. Hinge abduction in avascular necrosis of the hip: diagnosis and treatment. J Pediatr Orthop. 1992;1B:67–71.Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    Annamalai SK, Buckingham R, Cashman J. Perthes disease: a survey of management amongst members of the British Society for Children’s Orthopaedic Surgery (BSCOS). J Child Orthop. 2007;1(2):107–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Hefti F, Clarke NM. The management of Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease: is there a consensus?: a study of clinical practice preferred by the members of the European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society. J Child Orthop. 2007;1(1):19–25.Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Wagenaar FB, Maathuis CG, van Erve RH. Treatment outcome in the most severely affected Legg-Perthes patients, comparing prolonged traction in abduction with femoral varus derotation treatment. J Child Orthop. 2011;5(2):89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Osman MK, Martin DJ, Sherlock DA. Outcome of late-onset Perthes’ disease using four different treatment modalities. J Child Orthop. 2009;3(3):235–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Nguyen N-AT, Klein G, Dogbey G, McCourt JB, Mehlman CT. Operative versus nonoperative treatments for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2012;32:697–705.Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    Arkader A, Sankar WN, Amorim RM. Conservative versus surgical treatment of late-onset Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: a radiographic comparison at skeletal maturity. J Child Orthop. 2009;3(1):21–5.Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    Larson AN, Sucato DJ, Herring JA, et al. A prospective multicenter study of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: functional and radiographic outcomes of nonoperative treatment at a mean follow-up of twenty years. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(7):584–92.Google Scholar
  363. 363.
    Kim HK. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;18(11):676–86.Google Scholar
  364. 364.
    Ibrahim T, Little DG. The pathogenesis and treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. JBJS Rev. 2016;4(7):e4.Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    Young ML, Little DG, Kim HKW. Evidence for using bisphosphonate to treat Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop Rel Res. 2012;470:2462–75.Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Kim HKW, Aruwajoye O, Du J, Kamiya N. Local administration of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bisphosphonate during non-weight-bearing treatment of ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014;96:1515–24.Google Scholar
  367. 367.
    Zou Y, Fisher PD, Horstmann JK, Talwalkar V, Milbrandt TA, Puleo DA. Synergistic local drug delivery in a piglet model of ischemic osteonecrosis: a preliminary study. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2015;24:483–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic Shapiro
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Visiting Scholar, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine/Endocrinology (Bone Biology)Palo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Formerly, Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical SchoolBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations