Advertisement

Connectivity

  • Robert Fletcher
  • Marie-Josée Fortin
Chapter

Abstract

The importance of space for ecology and conservation relies on the importance of connectivity. It is well known that connectivity can influence populations and communities through a variety of mechanisms, and promoting connectivity is frequently championed as a way to mitigate negative effects of environmental change. Here, we provide an overview on the concept of connectivity and its relevance for applied ecology. We first outline the various interpretations regarding connectivity and theoretical developments that emphasize its importance. We then describe three general approaches to quantifying connectivity, including the quantification of connectivity based on structural features (i.e., structural connectivity) of the landscape, the use of spatially explicit measures of connectivity based on the resistance of the landscape (e.g., potential functional connectivity), and the use of patch-based graphs (or network analysis) that quantify linkages between habitats. We illustrate how these approaches are implemented through two examples on endangered species. Our examples highlight different assumptions made in connectivity mapping, such as the use of least-cost paths and circuit theory, and how several patch-based graph metrics are related. We end by providing guidance for the advancement and applications of connectivity assessments.

References

  1. Acevedo MA, Sefair JA, Smith JC, Reichert B, Fletcher RJ Jr (2015) Conservation under uncertainty: optimal network protection strategies for worst-case disturbance events. J Appl Ecol 52:1588–1597. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert CH, Rayfield B, Dumitru M, Gonzalez A (2017) Applying network theory to prioritize multispecies habitat networks that are robust to climate and land-use change. Conserv Biol 31(6):1383–1396. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baguette M, Blanchet S, Legrand D, Stevens VM, Turlure C (2013) Individual dispersal, landscape connectivity and ecological networks. Biol Rev 88(2):310–326. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bélisle M (2005) Measuring landscape connectivity: the challenge of behavioral landscape ecology. Ecology 86(8):1988–1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bélisle M, Desrochers A (2002) Gap-crossing decisions by forest birds: an empirical basis for parameterizing spatially-explicit, individual-based models. Landsc Ecol 17(3):219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bender DJ, Fahrig L (2005) Matrix structure obscures the relationship between interpatch movement and patch size and isolation. Ecology 86(4):1023–1033. https://doi.org/10.1890/03-0769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blondel VD, Guillaume J-L, Lambiotte R, Lefebvre E (2008) Fast unfolding of communities in large networks. J Stat Mech Theory Exp. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-5468/2008/10/p10008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bodin O, Norberg J (2007) A network approach for analyzing spatially structured populations in fragmented landscape. Landsc Ecol 22(1):31–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-006-9015-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodin O, Saura S (2010) Ranking individual habitat patches as connectivity providers: integrating network analysis and patch removal experiments. Ecol Model 221(19):2393–2405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.06.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borgatti SP, Everett MG (2006) A graph-theoretic perspective on centrality. Soc Networks 28(4):466–484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2005.11.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brownie C, Hines JE, Nichols JD, Pollock KH, Hestbeck JB (1993) Capture-recapture studies for multiple strata including non-markovian transitions. Biometrics 49(4):1173–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bunn AG, Urban DL, Keitt TH (2000) Landscape connectivity: a conservation application of graph theory. J Environ Manag 59(4):265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Calabrese JM, Fagan WF (2004) A comparison-shopper’s guide to connectivity metrics. Front Ecol Environ 2(10):529–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carrara F, Altermatt F, Rodriguez-Iturbe I, Rinaldo A (2012) Dendritic connectivity controls biodiversity patterns in experimental metacommunities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(15):5761–5766. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1119651109PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carroll C, McRae BH, Brookes A (2012) Use of linkage mapping and centrality analysis across habitat gradients to conserve connectivity of gray wolf populations in western North America. Conserv Biol 26(1):78–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01753.xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Charnov EL (1976) Optimal foraging: marginal value theorem. Theor Popul Biol 9(2):129–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-5809(76)90040-xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chisholm C, Lindo Z, Gonzalez A (2011) Metacommunity diversity depends on connectivity and patch arrangement in heterogeneous habitat networks. Ecography 34(3):415–424. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06588.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark JS, Silman M, Kern R, Macklin E, HilleRisLambers J (1999) Seed dispersal near and far: patterns across temperate and tropical forests. Ecology 80(5):1475–1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cook WM, Lane KT, Foster BL, Holt RD (2002) Island theory, matrix effects and species richness patterns in habitat fragments. Ecol Lett 5(5):619–623. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2002.00366.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crooks KR, Sanjayan M (eds) (2006) Connectivity conservation. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Csardi G, Nepusz T (2006) The igraph software package for complex network research. InterJournal Complex Syst 1695(5):1–9Google Scholar
  22. Dale MRT, Fortin MJ (2010) From graphs to spatial graphs. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 41:21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Delignette-Muller ML, Dutang C (2015) fitdistrplus: an R package for fitting distributions. J Stat Softw 64(4):1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dijkstra EW (1959) A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. Numer Math 1:269–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drake JC, Griffis-Kyle KL, McIntyre NE (2017) Graph theory as an invasive species management tool: case study in the Sonoran Desert. Landsc Ecol 32(8):1739–1752. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-017-0539-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elliot NB, Cushman SA, Macdonald DW, Loveridge AJ (2014) The devil is in the dispersers: predictions of landscape connectivity change with demography. J Appl Ecol 51(5):1169–1178. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Etherington TR (2016) Least-cost modelling and landscape ecology: concepts, applications, and opportunities. Curr Landsc Ecol Rep 1:40–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Etherington TR, Holland EP (2013) Least-cost path length versus accumulated-cost as connectivity measures. Landsc Ecol 28(7):1223–1229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-013-9880-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Etten J, Hijmans RJ (2010) A geospatial modelling approach integrating archaeobotany and genetics to trace the origin and dispersal of domesticated plants. PLoS One 5:e12060. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012060PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fahrig L (1998) When does fragmentation of breeding habitat affect population survival? Ecol Model 105(2–3):273–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fahrig L (2003) Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Biodiversity. Ann Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34(1):487–515. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fall A, Fortin MJ, Manseau M, O’Brien D (2007) Spatial graphs: principles and applications for habitat connectivity. Ecosystems 10(3):448–461. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-007-9038-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferrari JR, Preisser EL, Fitzpatrick MC (2014) Modeling the spread of invasive species using dynamic network models. Biol Invasions 16(4):949–960. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-013-0552-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fletcher RJ Jr (2006) Emergent properties of conspecific attraction in fragmented landscapes. Am Nat 168(2):207–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fletcher RJ, Reichert BE, Holmes K (2018) The negative effects of habitat fragmentation operate at the scale of dispersal. Ecology 99(10):2176–2186PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fletcher RJ Jr, Acevedo MA, Reichert BE, Pias KE, Kitchens WM (2011) Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:19282–19287PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fletcher RJ Jr, Maxwell CW Jr, Andrews JE, Helmey-Hartman WL (2013a) Signal detection theory clarifies the concept of perceptual range and its relevance to landscape connectivity. Landsc Ecol 28(1):57–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-012-9812-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fletcher RJ Jr, Revell A, Reichert BE, Kitchens WM, Dixon JD, Austin JD (2013b) Network modularity reveals critical scales for connectivity in ecology and evolution. Nat Commun 4:2572. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3572PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fletcher RJ Jr, Acevedo MA, Robertson EP (2014) The matrix alters the role of path redundancy on patch colonization rates. Ecology 95(6):1444–1450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fletcher RJ Jr, Burrell N, Reichert BE, Vasudev D (2016) Divergent perspectives on landscape connectivity reveal consistent effects from genes to communities. Curr Landsc Ecol Rep 1(2):67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Foltete JC, Vuidel G (2017) Using landscape graphs to delineate ecologically functional areas. Landsc Ecol 32(2):249–263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-016-0445-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fortuna MA, Albaladejo RG, Fernandez L, Aparicio A, Bascompte J (2009) Networks of spatial genetic variation across species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(45):19044–19049. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0907704106PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Galpern P, Manseau M, Fall A (2011) Patch-based graphs of landscape connectivity: a guide to construction, analysis and application for conservation. Biol Conserv 144(1):44–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gilbert-Norton L, Wilson R, Stevens JR, Beard KH (2010) A meta-analytic review of corridor effectiveness. Conserv Biol 24(3):660–668. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01450.xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gilpin ME (1980) The role of stepping-stone islands. Theor Popul Biol 17(2):247–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-5809(80)90009-xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Graves T, Chandler RB, Royle JA, Beier P, Kendall KC (2014) Estimating landscape resistance to dispersal. Landsc Ecol 29(7):1201–1211. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-0056-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Greenwood PJ (1980) Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Anim Behav 28(NOV):1140–1162. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-3472(80)80103-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Greenwood PJ, Harvey PH (1982) The natal and breeding dispersal of birds. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 13:1–21. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.13.110182.000245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Guillot G, Leblois R, Coulon A, Frantz AC (2009) Statistical methods in spatial genetics. Mol Ecol 18(23):4734–4756. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04410.xPubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gustafson EJ, Parker GR (1994) Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design. Landsc Urban Plan 29(2–3):117–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(94)90022-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Haase CG, Fletcher RJ, Slone DH, Reid JP, Butler SM (2017) Landscape complementation revealed through bipartite networks: an example with the Florida manatee. Landsc Ecol 32(10):1999–2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-017-0560-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Haddad NM, Bowne DR, Cunningham A, Danielson BJ, Levey DJ, Sargent S, Spira T (2003) Corridor use by diverse taxa. Ecology 84(3):609–615. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[0609:cubdt]2.0.co;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haddad NM, Brudvig LA, Damschen EI, Evans DM, Johnson BL, Levey DJ, Orrock JL, Resasco J, Sullivan LL, Tewksbury JJ, Wagner SA, Weldon AJ (2014) Potential negative ecological effects of corridors. Conserv Biol 28(5):1178–1187. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Haddad NM, Brudvig LA, Clobert J, Davies KF, Gonzalez A et al (2015) Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth. Sci Adv 1:e1500052PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Handcock M, Hunter D, Butts C, Goodreau S, Morris M (2008) Statnet: software tools for the representation, visualization, analysis and simulation of network data. J Stat Softw 24(1):1–11PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hanks EM, Hooten MB (2013) Circuit theory and model-based inference for landscape connectivity. J Am Stat Assoc 108(501):22–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2012.724647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hanski I (1994) A practical model of metapopulation dynamics. J Anim Ecol 63(1):151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hanski I (1998) Metapopulation dynamics. Nature 396(6706):41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hanski I (1999) Metapopulation ecology. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  60. Hanski I, Ovaskainen O (2000) The metapopulation capacity of a fragmented landscape. Nature 404(6779):755–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harju SM, Olson CV, Dzialak MR, Mudd JP, Winstead JB (2013) A flexible approach for assessing functional landscape connectivity, with application to greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). PLoS One 8(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082271PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Heino M, Kaitala V, Ranta E, Lindstrom J (1997) Synchronous dynamics and rates of extinction in spatially structured populations. Proc R Soc B 264(1381):481–486. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1997.0069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Heller NE, Zavaleta ES (2009) Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: a review of 22 years of recommendations. Biol Conserv 142(1):14–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.10.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hiebeler D (2000) Populations on fragmented landscapes with spatially structured heterogeneities: landscape generation and local dispersal. Ecology 81:1629–1641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hock K, Mumby PJ (2015) Quantifying the reliability of dispersal paths in connectivity networks. J Royal Soc Int 12(105). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0013PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hodgson JA, Moilanen A, Wintle BA, Thomas CD (2011) Habitat area, quality and connectivity: striking the balance for efficient conservation. J Appl Ecol 48(1):148–152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01919.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Holme P, Saramaki J (2012) Temporal networks. Phys Rep Rev Sect Phys Lett 519(3):97–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physrep.2012.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Howell PE, Muths E, Hossack BR, Sigafus BH, Chandler RB (2018) Increasing connectivity between metapopulation ecology and landscape ecology. Ecology 99(5):1119–1128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ims RA (1995) Movement patterns related to spatial structures. In: Hansson L, Fahrig L, Merriam G (eds) Mosaic landscapes and ecological processes. Chapman & Hall, London, UK, pp 85–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Johst K, Drechsler M (2003) Are spatially correlated or uncorrelated disturbance regimes better for the survival of species? Oikos 103(3):449–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kallimanis AS, Kunin WE, Halley JM, Sgardelis SP (2005) Metapopulation extinction risk under spatially autocorrelated disturbance. Conserv Biol 19(2):534–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kautz R, Kawula R, Hoctor T, Comiskey J, Jansen D, Jennings D, Kasbohm J, Mazzotti F, McBride R, Richardson L, Root K (2006) How much is enough? Landscape-scale conservation for the Florida panther. Biol Conserv 130(1):118–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.12.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kimura M, Weiss GH (1964) Stepping stone model of population structure and decrease of genetic correlation with distance. Genetics 49(4):561PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Klaus B, Strimmer K (2015) fdrtool: estimation of (local) false discovery rates and higher criticism. R package version 1.2.15Google Scholar
  75. Kool JT, Moilanen A, Treml EA (2013) Population connectivity: recent advances and new perspectives. Landsc Ecol 28(2):165–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-012-9819-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Larson A, Wake DB, Yanev KP (1984) Measuring gene flow among populations having high levels of genetic fragmentation. Genetics 106(2):293–308PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Lawler JJ, Ruesch AS, Olden JD, McRae BH (2013) Projected climate-driven faunal movement routes. Ecol Lett 16(8):1014–1022. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12132PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Leibold MA, Holyoak M, Mouquet N, Amarasekare P, Chase JM, Hoopes MF, Holt RD, Shurin JB, Law R, Tilman D, Loreau M, Gonzalez A (2004) The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecol Lett 7(7):601–613. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00608.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lomolino MV (1990) The target area hypothesis: the influence of island area on immigration rates of non-volant mammals. Oikos 57(3):297–300. https://doi.org/10.2307/3565957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lowe WH, Allendorf FW (2010) What can genetics tell us about population connectivity? Mol Ecol 19(15):3038–3051. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04688.xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  82. Margosian ML, Garrett KA, Hutchinson JMS, With KA (2009) Connectivity of the American agricultural landscape: assessing the national risk of crop pest and disease spread. Bioscience 59(2):141–151. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2009.59.2.7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marrotte RR, Bowman J (2017) The relationship between least-cost and resistance distance. PLoS One 12(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174212PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Martensen AC, Saura S, Fortin MJ (2017) Spatio-temporal connectivity: assessing the amount of reachable habitat in dynamic landscapes. Methods Ecol Evol 8(10):1253–1264. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Matter SF (2001) Synchrony, extinction, and dynamics of spatially segregated, heterogeneous populations. Ecol Model 141(1–3):217–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3800(01)00275-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McGarigal K, Cushman SA, Neel MC, Ene E (2002) FRAGSTATS: Spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps. Computer software program produced by the authors at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Available at the following web site: http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html
  87. McRae BH (2006) Isolation by resistance. Evolution 60(8):1551–1561PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. McRae BH, Dickson BG, Keitt TH, Shah VB (2008) Using circuit theory to model connectivity in ecology, evolution, and conservation. Ecology 89(10):2712–2724PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McRae BH, Hall SA, Beier P, Theobald DM (2012) Where to restore ecological connectivity? Detecting barriers and quantifying restoration benefits. PLoS One 7(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052604PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mestre F, Canovas F, Pita R, Mira A, Beja P (2016) An R package for simulating metapopulation dynamics and range expansion under environmental change. Environ Model Softw 81:40–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.03.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Minor ES, Gardner RH (2011) Landscape connectivity and seed dispersal characteristics inform the best management strategy for exotic plants. Ecol Appl 21:739–749. https://doi.org/10.1890/10-0321.1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Minor ES, Lookingbill TR (2010) A multiscale network analysis of protected-area connectivity for mammals in the United States. Conserv Biol 24(6):1549–1558. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01558.xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mitchell MGE, Bennett EM, Gonzalez A (2013) Linking landscape connectivity and ecosystem service provision: current knowledge and research gaps. Ecosystems 16(5):894–908. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-013-9647-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Moilanen A, Hanski I (1998) Metapopulation dynamics: effects of habitat quality and landscape structure. Ecology 79(7):2503–2515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Moilanen A, Hanski I (2001) On the use of connectivity measures in spatial ecology. Oikos 95(1):147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Moilanen A, Nieminen M (2002) Simple connectivity measures in spatial ecology. Ecology 83(4):1131–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nathan R, Getz WM, Revilla E, Holyoak M, Kadmon R, Saltz D, Smouse PE (2008) A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(49):19052–19059. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0800375105PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Newman MEJ (2005) A measure of betweenness centrality based on random walks. Soc Networks 27(1):39–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2004.11.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ovaskainen O, Luoto M, Ikonen I, Rekola H, Meyke E, Kuussaari M (2008) An empirical test of a diffusion model: predicting clouded apollo movements in a novel environment. Am Nat 171(5):610–619. https://doi.org/10.1086/587070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Panzacchi M, Van Moorter B, Strand O, Saerens M, Ki IK, St Clair CC, Herfindal I, Boitani L (2016) Predicting the continuum between corridors and barriers to animal movements using Step Selection Functions and Randomized Shortest Paths. J Anim Ecol 85(1):32–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12386PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Pascual-Hortal L, Saura S (2006) Comparison and development of new graph-based landscape connectivity indices: towards the priorization of habitat patches and corridors for conservation. Landsc Ecol 21(7):959–967. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-006-0013-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pascual-Hortal L, Saura S (2007) Impact of spatial scale on the identification of critical habitat patches for the maintenance of landscape connectivity. Landsc Urban Plan 83(2–3):176–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.04.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pe’er G, Kramer-Schadt S (2008) Incorporating the perceptual range of animals into connectivity models. Ecol Model 213(1):73–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.11.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Peterman WE (2018) ResistanceGA: an R package for the optimization of resistance surfaces using genetic algorithms. Methods Ecol Evol. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pfluger FJ, Balkenhol N (2014) A plea for simultaneously considering matrix quality and local environmental conditions when analysing landscape impacts on effective dispersal. Mol Ecol 23(9):2146–2156. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.12712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pinto N, Keitt TH (2009) Beyond the least-cost path: evaluating corridor redundancy using a graph-theoretic approach. Landsc Ecol 24(2):253–266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-008-9303-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pringle CM (2001) Hydrologic connectivity and the management of biological reserves: a global perspective. Ecol Appl 11(4):981–998. https://doi.org/10.2307/3061006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Proulx SR, Promislow DEL, Phillips PC (2005) Network thinking in ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 20(6):345–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pulliam HR (1988) Sources, sinks, and population regulation. Am Nat 132(5):652–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pulliam HR, Danielson BJ (1991) Sources, sinks, and habitat selection: a landscape perspective on population dynamics. Am Nat 137:S50–S66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rayfield B, Fortin MJ, Fall A (2010) The sensitivity of least-cost habitat graphs to relative cost surface values. Landsc Ecol 25(4):519–532. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-009-9436-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rayfield B, Fortin M-J, Fall A (2011) Connectivity for conservation: a framework to classify network measures. Ecology 92(4):847–858. https://doi.org/10.1890/09-2190.1PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Reeve JD, Cronin JT, Haynes KJ (2008) Diffusion models for animals in complex landscapes: incorporating heterogeneity among substrates, individuals and edge behaviours. J Anim Ecol 77(5):898–904. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01411.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Reichert BE, Cattau CE, Fletcher RJ Jr, Sykes PW Jr, Rodgers JA Jr, Bennetts RE (2015) Snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis). In: Poole A (ed) The birds of North America online. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  115. Reichert BE, Fletcher RJ Jr, Cattau CE, Kitchens WM (2016) Consistent scaling of population structure despite intraspecific variation in movement and connectivity. J Anim Ecol 85:1563–1573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Richard Y, Armstrong DP (2010) Cost distance modelling of landscape connectivity and gap-crossing ability using radio-tracking data. J Appl Ecol 47(3):603–610. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01806.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Robertson EP, Fletcher RJ Jr, Cattau CE, Udell BJ, Reichert BE, Austin JD, Valle D (2018) Isolating the roles of movement and reproduction on effective connectivity alters conservation priorities for an endangered bird. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115(34):8591–8596PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Roy M, Pascual M, Levin SA (2004) Competitive coexistence in a dynamic landscape. Theor Popul Biol 66(4):341–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2004.06.012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Royle JA, Chandler RB, Gazenski KD, Graves TA (2013) Spatial capture-recapture models for jointly estimating population density and landscape connectivity. Ecology 94(2):287–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Royle JA, Chandler RB, Sollmann R, Gardner B (2014) Spatial capture-recapture. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  121. Royle JA, Fuller AK, Sutherland C (2018) Unifying population and landscape ecology with spatial capture-recapture. Ecography 41(3):444–456. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.03170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rubio L, Bodin O, Brotons L, Saura S (2015) Connectivity conservation priorities for individual patches evaluated in the present landscape: how durable and effective are they in the long term? Ecography 38(8):782–791. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.00935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rudnick DA, Ryan SJ, Beier P, Cushman SA, Dieffenbach F, Epps CW, Gerber LR, Hartter J, Jenness JS, Kintsch J, Mernlender AM, Perkl RM, Preziosi DV, Trombulak SC (2012) The role of landscape connectivity in planning and implementing conservation and restoration priorities. Issues Ecol 16:1–20Google Scholar
  124. Runge JP, Runge MC, Nichols JD (2006) The role of local populations within a landscape context: defining and classifying sources and sinks. Am Nat 167(6):925–938. https://doi.org/10.1086/503531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Saerens M, Achbany Y, Fouss F, Yen L (2009) Randomized shortest-path problems: two related models. Neural Comput 21(8):2363–2404. https://doi.org/10.1162/neco.2009.11-07-643PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Saura S, Pascual-Hortal L (2007) A new habitat availability index to integrate connectivity in landscape conservation planning: comparison with existing indices and application to a case study. Landsc Urban Plan 83(2–3):91–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Saura S, Rubio L (2010) A common currency for the different ways in which patches and links can contribute to habitat availability and connectivity in the landscape. Ecography 33(3):523–537. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2009.05760.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Saura S, Bodin O, Fortin MJ (2014) Stepping stones are crucial for species’ long-distance dispersal and range expansion through habitat networks. J Appl Ecol 51(1):171–182. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sawyer SC, Epps CW, Brashares JS (2011) Placing linkages among fragmented habitats: do least-cost models reflect how animals use landscapes? J Appl Ecol 48(3):668–678. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01970.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Schumaker NH, Brookes A, Dunk JR, Woodbridge B, Heinrichs JA, Lawler JJ, Carroll C, LaPlante D (2014) Mapping sources, sinks, and connectivity using a simulation model of northern spotted owls. Landsc Ecol 29(4):579–592. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-0004-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sexton JP, Hangartner SB, Hoffmann AA (2014) Genetic isolation by environment or distance: which pattern of gene flow is most common? Evolution 68(1):1–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.12258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Snijders TAB (2011) Statistical models for social networks. Annu Rev Sociol 37:131–153. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stevens VM, Baguette M (2008) Importance of habitat quality and landscape connectivity for the persistence of endangered natterjack toads. Conserv Biol 22(5):1194–1204. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00990-xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Strogatz SH (2001) Exploring complex networks. Nature 410(6825):268–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sutherland C, Fuller AK, Royle JA (2015) Modelling non-Euclidean movement and landscape connectivity in highly structured ecological networks. Methods Ecol Evol 6(2):169–177. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Thomas CD, Kunin WE (1999) The spatial structure of populations. J Anim Ecol 68(4):647–657. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.1999.00330.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Tischendorf L, Fahrig L (2000) How should we measure landscape connectivity? Landsc Ecol 15(7):633–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Turlure C, Baguette M, Stevens VM, Maes D (2011) Species- and sex-specific adjustments of movement behavior to landscape heterogeneity in butterflies. Behav Ecol 22(5):967–975. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arr077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Tyler JA, Hargrove WW (1997) Predicting spatial distribution of foragers over large resource landscapes: a modeling analysis of the Ideal Free Distribution. Oikos 79(2):376–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Urban D, Keitt T (2001) Landscape connectivity: a graph-theoretic perspective. Ecology 82(5):1205–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Urban DL, Minor ES, Treml EA, Schick RS (2009) Graph models of habitat mosaics. Ecol Lett 12(3):260–273. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01271.xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Valle D, Cvetojevic S, Robertson EP, Reichert BE, Hochmair HH, Fletcher RJ (2017) Individual movement strategies revealed through novel clustering of emergent movement patterns. Sci Rep 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep44052
  143. van Etten J (2012) gdistance: distances and routes on geographical grids. R package version 1.1-4. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=gdistance
  144. VanDerWal J, Shoo L, Januchowski S (2010) SDMTools: species distribution modelling tools: tools for processing data associated with species distribution modelling exercises. R package version 1.1Google Scholar
  145. Vasudev D, Fletcher RJ Jr, Goswami VR, Krishnadas M (2015) From dispersal constraints to landscape connectivity: lessons from species distribution modeling. Ecography 38:967–978. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.01306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Verheyen K, Vellend M, Van Calster H, Peterken G, Hermy M (2004) Metapopulation dynamics in changing landscapes: a new spatially realistic model for forest plants. Ecology 85(12):3302–3312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. von Luxburg U, Radl A, Hein M (2014) Hitting and commute times in large random neighborhood graphs. J Mach Learn Res 15:1751–1798Google Scholar
  148. Vuilleumier S, Bolker BM, Leveque O (2010) Effects of colonization asymmetries on metapopulation persistence. Theor Popul Biol 78(3):225–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2010.06.007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wang IJ, Bradburd GS (2014) Isolation by environment. Mol Ecol 23(23):5649–5662. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.12938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Webster MS, Marra PP, Haig SM, Bensch S, Holmes RT (2002) Links between worlds: unraveling migratory connectivity. Trends Ecol Evol 17(2):76–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-5347(01)02380-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wickham H (2009) ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  152. Winfree R, Dushoff J, Crone EE, Schultz CB, Budny RV, Williams NM, Kremen C (2005) Testing simple indices of habitat proximity. Am Nat 165(6):707–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wright S (1943) Isolation by distance. Genetics 28(2):114–138PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Zeigler SL, Fagan WF (2014) Transient windows for connectivity in a changing world. Movement Ecol 2(1):1–1. https://doi.org/10.1186/2051-3933-2-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Zeller KA, McGarigal K, Whiteley AR (2012) Estimating landscape resistance to movement: a review. Landsc Ecol 27(6):777–797. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-012-9737-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zollner PA, Lima SL (1999) Search strategies for landscape-level interpatch movements. Ecology 80(3):1019–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Fletcher
    • 1
  • Marie-Josée Fortin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Wildlife Ecology and ConservationUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations