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Test 9

  • Michael Paddock
  • Amaka C. Offiah
Chapter

Abstract

Severe tissue damage can result from BBI from as little as 2 h in situ. The most important mechanism is that of electrolysis of fluid in local oesophageal tissue which generates a current, and subsequently hydroxide, at the negative pole of the battery. The type of button battery is also important: the ubiquitous lithium button batteries have a higher voltage and capacitance than other types resulting in an increased production of hydroxide and therefore more tissue damage. Other mechanisms include pressure necrosis and leakage of alkaline electrolytes from the battery itself (however, this is supposedly less of a problem with lithium batteries which is said to cause less mucosal irritation). Delayed complications include but are not limited to: oesophageal perforation; oesophageal stricture; tracheo-oesphageal fistula; exsanguination after fistulation into a major blood vessel (e.g. aorto-oesophageal fistula); and vocal cord paralysis.

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Further Reading

Image 5

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Image 15

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Image 30

  1. Gaillard F, Pradosh KS (2018) Thymic sail sign. https://radiopaedia.org/articles/thymic-sail-sign. Accessed June 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Paddock
    • 1
  • Amaka C. Offiah
    • 2
  1. 1.Sheffield Teaching HospitalsSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Academic Unit of Child Health, Department of Oncology and MetabolismUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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