Test 9

  • Michael Paddock
  • Amaka C. Offiah


Severe tissue damage can result from BBI from as little as 2 h in situ. The most important mechanism is that of electrolysis of fluid in local oesophageal tissue which generates a current, and subsequently hydroxide, at the negative pole of the battery. The type of button battery is also important: the ubiquitous lithium button batteries have a higher voltage and capacitance than other types resulting in an increased production of hydroxide and therefore more tissue damage. Other mechanisms include pressure necrosis and leakage of alkaline electrolytes from the battery itself (however, this is supposedly less of a problem with lithium batteries which is said to cause less mucosal irritation). Delayed complications include but are not limited to: oesophageal perforation; oesophageal stricture; tracheo-oesphageal fistula; exsanguination after fistulation into a major blood vessel (e.g. aorto-oesophageal fistula); and vocal cord paralysis.


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Further Reading

Image 5

  1. Lee JH, Lee JH, Shim JO et al (2016) Foreign body ingestion in children: should button batteries in the stomach be urgently removed? Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 19(1):20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Litovitz T, Whitaker N, Clark L (2010) Preventing battery ingestions: an analysis of 8648 cases. Paediatrics 125(6):1178–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Thabet MH, Basha WM, Askar S (2013) Button battery foreign bodies in children: hazards, management and recommendations. Biomed Res Int 2013:846091CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Image 15

  1. Do S, Maller VG et al (2018) Luftsichel sign (lungs). Accessed June 2018
  2. Gaillard F et al (2018) Left upper lobe collapse. Accessed June 2018

Image 19

  1. Bickle I, Gaillard F et al (2018) Pectus excavatum. Accessed June 2018

Image 28

  1. Chowdhury MM, Chakraborty S (2015) Imaging of congenital lung malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg 24(4):168–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Daltro P, Fricke BL, Kuroki I, Domingues R, Donnelly LF (2004) CT of congenital lung lesions in pediatric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 183(5):1497–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Mohammed Abdul Wajid L, Sinha I, Gupta R (2017) An infant with persistent tachypnoea. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 102(4):222–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Image 30

  1. Gaillard F, Pradosh KS (2018) Thymic sail sign. Accessed June 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Paddock
    • 1
  • Amaka C. Offiah
    • 2
  1. 1.Sheffield Teaching HospitalsSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Academic Unit of Child Health, Department of Oncology and MetabolismUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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