Test 4

  • Michael Paddock
  • Amaka C. Offiah


The Hilgenreiner line is also used as a reference line to calculate the acetabular angle—this is the angle between the Hilgenreiner line and a further line drawn tangential to the acetabular roof. At birth, this angle should measure less than 28°. As the normal hip joints mature, they become progressively shallower and by the age of 1 year the acetabular angle should measure less than 22°. In DDH (and in neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy and some skeletal dysplasias), the acetabular angle will be increased. There are excellent illustrations of these lines provided in the references.


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Further Reading

Image 5

  1. Jones J et al (2018) Os trigonum. Accessed April 2018

Image 9

  1. Please see the Test 2, Image 14 references regarding the imaging of suspected physical abuse in infants and young childrenGoogle Scholar

Image 10

  1. Bell D, Gaillard F et al (2018) Osteochondritis dissecans. Accessed April 2018
  2. Kan JH (2018) Osteochondral abnormalities: pitfalls, injuries, and osteochondritis dissecans. Accessed July 2018
  3. Sharma R, Gaillard F et al (2018) Osteochondral defect. Accessed April 2018.
  4. Thapa MM, Chaturvedi A, Iyer RS et al (2012) MRI of pediatric patients: part 2, normal variants and abnormalities of the knee. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(5):W456–W465CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Image 11

  1. Al Muderis M, Azzopardi T, Cundy P (2007) Zebra lines of pamidronate therapy in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 89(7):1511–1516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell DJ, Morgan MA et al (2018) Growth arrest lines. Accessed April 2018
  3. Thurston M, Jones J et al (2018) Alternating radiolucent and radiodense metaphyseal lines. Accessed April 2018

Image 13

  1. Aiyer A, Moore D (2018) Pelvis fractures – pediatric. Accessed July 2018
  2. Bomer J, Holscher H et al (2018) Hip pathology in children. Accessed April 2018
  3. Stevens MA, El-Khoury GY, Kathol MH et al (1999) Imaging features of avulsion injuries. Radiographics. 19(3):655–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Image 27

  1. Niknejad MT et al (2018) Os subfibulare. Accessed April 2018

Image 30

  1. Lujikx T, Hsu C-T et al (2018) Volar plate avulsion injury. Accessed April 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Paddock
    • 1
  • Amaka C. Offiah
    • 2
  1. 1.Sheffield Teaching HospitalsSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Academic Unit of Child Health, Department of Oncology and MetabolismUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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