A Continuous and Differentiable Mechanical Model of Muscle Force and Impedance

  • Matthew MillardEmail author
  • David Franklin
  • Walter Herzog
Conference paper
Part of the Biosystems & Biorobotics book series (BIOSYSROB, volume 22)


No single muscle model exists that has the same mechanical impedance and force development properties as biological muscle. It is essential to develop a muscle model with the same force limitations and impedance as biological muscle, especially for predictive simulations, as these properties are taken into account when choosing a posture for a specific task. We propose a mechanics-based muscle model that has the same impedance and force development properties as biological muscle by making a small topology change that turns titin, an enormous viscoelastic protein, from acting in parallel to the cross-bridges to acting in series with the cross-bridges.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew Millard
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Franklin
    • 2
  • Walter Herzog
    • 3
  1. 1.Optimization, Robotics and Biomechanics GroupHeidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Neuromuscular Diagnostics GroupTechnical University of MunichMunichGermany
  3. 3.Human Performance LaboratoryUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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