Advertisement

Understanding Landscape: Cultural Perceptions of Environment in the UK and China

  • Ying LiEmail author
  • Ian Mell
Chapter
Part of the Cities and Nature book series (CITIES)

Abstract

Different philosophical traditions in China and the UK have contributed to the establishment of a multi-dimensional discussion of perceptions of nature. This has influenced the approach of landscape architects and planners in the design and planning of the built environment and continues to affect the treatment of private and public space design. With rapid urbanisation in the twentieth century, there has been a growing discussion (emanating from North America but also permeating discussions in the UK, Europe and more recently East Asia) of how we create places that satisfy the need and desire from the public for contact with ‘nature’. This chapter presents a comparative discussion of historical perceptions of landscape within urban development located within the UK and China. We reflect on how urban ecology has been integrated into development practices, debate the interaction of people with urban landscape and consider responses to demands for nature in cities. The chapter concludes with a review on the current practice surrounding the development and management of urban public space in China and the UK, reflecting the cultural context of nature in cities and the work of urban planning and design authorities.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author(s) would like to thank Tom Turner (University of Greenwich, UK) and Qiheng Wang (Tianjin University, China) for their advice during the development of this chapter.

References

  1. Addiss A, Lombardo S (2007) TaoTe Ching Eastern Philosophy and Taoism Series. Shambhala Publications, Colorado, p 42Google Scholar
  2. Amati M, Taylor L (2010) From green belts to green infrastructure. Plan Pract Res 25(2):143–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baeumler A, Chen M et al (2012) Eco-cities and low-carbon cities: the China context and global perspectives. In: Baeumler (ed) Sustainable low-carbon city development in China. World Bank, Washington, DC, pp 33–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bateman IJ, Carson RT, Day B, Hanemann M, Hanley N, Hett T, Loomes G et al (2002) Economic valuation with stated preference techniques: a manual. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishop I (2005) Visualization in landscape and environmental planning. Routledge, AbingdonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campaign for the Protection of Rural England, Natural England (2010) Green belts: a greener future. A report by Natural England and the Campaign to Protect Rural England. LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Champion J (2013) Republican learning: John Toland and the crisis of Christian culture, 1696–1722. Manchester University Press, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen CD (1989) Urban ecology in China. J Appl Ecol. Br Ecol Soc 26(3):875–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen X, Wu J (2009) Sustainable landscape architecture: implications of the Chinese philosophy of “unity of man with nature” and beyond. Landsc Ecol 24(8):1015–1026.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-009-9369-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cherry S (2007) How to build a green city: Shanghai hopes to build the world’s first truly sustainable city. https://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-to-build-a-green-city. Accessed 21 Sep 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark WW (ed) (2009) Sustainable communities. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Coutts C (2016) Green infrastructure and public health. Routledge, AbingdonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daniels S (1989) Marxism, culture and the duplicity of landscape. In: Peet R, Thrift N (eds) New models in geography, vol 2, pp 236–255Google Scholar
  14. Dehaene M, Cauter DL (2008) Heterotopia and the city: public space in a postcivil society. Routledge, AbingdonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Douglas I, Goode D et al (2011) The routledge handbook of urban ecology. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Ecotec (2012) The economic benefits of Green Infrastructure: developing key tests for evaluating the benefits of Green Infrastructure. Report for The Mersey Forest & Natural Economy Northwest, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  17. England’s Community Forests, Forestry Commission (2012) Benefits to health and wellbeing of trees and green spaces. Farnham. http://www.communityforest.org.uk/resources/case_study_health_and_wellbeing.pdf Accessed 01 Nov 2017
  18. Fitter RSR (1946) London’s natural history. Collins, GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  19. Herrington S (2009) On landscapes. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Howard E (1989) Garden cities of tomorrow. S. Sonnenschein & Co. Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Hu JT (2007) Hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics and strive for new victories in building a moderately prosperous society in all. Report to the seventeenth national congress of the communist party of China. http://www.china.org.cn/english/congress/229611.htm. Accessed 10 Oct 2015
  22. Jim CY, Chen W (2006) Recreation–amenity use and contingent valuation of urban greenspaces in Guangzhou, China. Landsc Urban Plan 75(1–2):81–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaplan R, Kaplan S (1989) The experience of nature: a psychological perspective. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. Kellert SR (2012) Birthright: people and nature in the modern world. Yale University Press, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  25. Lovejoy AO (1935) Some meaning of nature. In: Lovejoy AO (ed) A documentary history of primitivism and related ideas. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, pp 447–456Google Scholar
  26. Lowenthal D (1985) The past is a foreign country. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Lynch K, Hack G (1984) Site planning, 3rd edn. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. Mars N, Hornsby A (2008) The Chinese dream: a society under construction, 010 Publishers, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  29. Matless D (1998) Landscape and englishness. Reakton Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. McHarg I (1969) Design with nature (Wiley series in sustainable design). Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. McMichael A (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: health synthesis: a report of the millennium ecosystem assessment. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  32. Mell IC (2016) Global green infrastructure: lessons for successful policy-making, investment and management. Routledge, AbingdonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mell IC, Henneberry J, Hehl-Lange S, Keskin B (2016) To green or not to green: establishing the economic value of green infrastructure investments in The Wicker, Sheffield. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 18:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mersey Forest (2013) The Mersey Forest plan: final draft, Sept 2013. Risley MossGoogle Scholar
  35. Milward A, Mostyn BJ (1980) Personal benefits and satisfactions derived from participation in urban wildlife projects. Social and Community Planning Research on Behalf of the Nature Conservancy Council, ShrewsburyGoogle Scholar
  36. Muller N, Werner P et al (2010) Urban biodiversity and design. Wiley, BlackwellCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nassauer J (1995) Culture and changing landscape structure. Landsc Ecol 10(4):229–237.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00129257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pepper D (1996) Modern environmentalism: an introduction. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Rees WJ, Skelding AD (1950) Vegetation. In: Wise MJ (ed) Birmingham and its regional setting: a scientific survey, Birmingham. British Association Local Executive Committee, pp 65–67Google Scholar
  40. Richter M, Weiland U (2011) Applied urban ecology: a global framework. John Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  41. Shang K (1992) China’s pattern of Fengshui: its formation, relationship to environment and landscaping. In: Wang QH (ed) Research of Fengshui theory. Tianjin University Press, Tianjin, p 27Google Scholar
  42. Shulenberger E, Endlicher W et al (eds) (2008) Urban ecology: an international perspective on the interaction between humans and nature. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  43. Song YC, Gao J (eds) (2008) Urban ecology studies in China, with an emphasis on Shanghai. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Sturzaker J, Mell I (2017) Green belts: past, present & future. Routlegde, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  45. Sullivan M (1984) The arts of China. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  46. Sze J (2015) Fantasy islands: Chinese dreams and ecological fears in an age of climate crisis. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  47. Town & Country Planning Association (2012) Creating garden cities and suburbs today: policies, practices, partnerships and model approaches—a report of the garden cities and suburbs expert group. Town & Country Planning Association, LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Tuan Y (1990) Topophilia: a study of environmental perceptions, attitudes, and values. Columbia University Press, New York CityGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang C (2005) One China, many Paths. Verso, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. Williams A (2017) China’s urban revolution: understanding Chinese eco-cities. Bloomsbury Publishing, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wu F (2015) Planning for growth: urban and regional planning in China (RTPI library series). Routledge, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wu WP, Gaubatz P (2013) The Chinese city. Routledge, AbingdonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang SH, Roo GD et al (2012) China: what about the urban revolution? Rapid transformations in chinese planning and its links with a slowly emerging european planning theory. Eur Plan Stud 20(12):1977–2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ArchitectureTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.School of Environment, Education and DevelopmentUniversity of ManchesterManchesterEngland, UK

Personalised recommendations