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Appendix

  • Miroslav Josipović
Chapter
Part of the Compact Textbooks in Mathematics book series (CTM)

Abstract

The exponential function can be defined by the series expansionwhere it is important to note that for a definite magnitude |x| we have convergence. Therefore, we can define the exponential function of the elements of a geometric algebra. In Cl3, we have four important types of elements (numbers): nilpotents (dual numbers, square to zero), imaginary (square to −1), hyperimaginary (square to 1), and idempotents (square to itself). Nilpotents are the easiest to deal with: the expansion (∗) gives zeros, except for the first two terms, and consequently, we have

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miroslav Josipović
    • 1
  1. 1.ZagrebCroatia

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