Basic Concepts

  • Miroslav Josipović
Part of the Compact Textbooks in Mathematics book series (CTM)


We denote vectors by small Latin letters in italic format wherever there is no possibility of confusion. If necessary, we will use the bold format or arrows. For multivectors, we use uppercase italic format, and for real numbers we use the Greek alphabet or Latin letters in roman format. If we define an orthonormal basis in a vector space, then the number of unit vectors that square to 1 is denoted by p, that square to −1 by q, and that square to 0 by r. The common designation for such a vector space is (p, q, r) or p, q, r, while the triplet (p, q, r) defines the signature. For the geometric algebra of the n-dimensional Euclidean vector space \( {\Re}^n \) (with q = r = 0), we use the abbreviation Cln, motivated by the surname Clifford.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miroslav Josipović
    • 1
  1. 1.ZagrebCroatia

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