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This chapter treats hypothesis testing as an opportunity for the researcher to distinguish between three possible explanations for a set of empirical findings: random chance, the scientific hypothesis of primary interest, and alternative scientific hypotheses. The methods it offers to advance this goal involve refining the null hypothesis, while increasing the scrutiny of the primary scientific hypothesis of interest and the number of alternative scientific hypotheses that it must compete with. These methods are brought to life in applications to home sales in New England, multiproduct pricing in Major League Baseball, turnout in Congressional elections, and the link between abortion and crime.
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