Advertisement

Pre-History: Emergence and Palaeolithic to Bronze Age—10,000 BC to 800 BC

  • Sangaralingam Ramesh
Chapter

Abstract

Shrew-like creatures that lived around 150 million years ago are the ancestors of humans and mammals. According to the latter, aquatic worms that lived over 600 million years ago are the ancestors of all amphibians, mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes. Furthermore, the bacteria-like organisms that lived over 3 billion years ago are the ‘parents’ of all living plants and animals. The theory of evolution suggests that creatures evolve and acquire anatomical features and behaviours over time in response to their environment, as a means of adaptation, through processes associated with the biological pathways of genetic change.

Keywords

Theory of evolution Genetic change Environment 

References

  1. Agrawal, D. (2007), The Indus Civilisation: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Aryan Books International.Google Scholar
  2. Arsuaga, J., and Martinez, I. (1998), The Chosen Species: The Long March of Human Evolution, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.Google Scholar
  3. Ayala, F., and Cela-Conde, C. (2017), Processes in Human Evolution: The journey from early hominins to Neanderthals and modern humans, Oxford University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, H. (2004), Iceni, Bladud Books, Bath, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  5. Bertman, S. (2003), Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  6. Bunney, S. (1988), Will the real Homo Habilis stand up? New Scientist, No.1636.Google Scholar
  7. Cakmak, I., Graham, R., and Welch, R. (2009), Agricultural and Molecular Genetic Approaches to Improving Nutrition and Preventing Micronutrient Malnutrition Globally, in ‘Impacts of Agriculture on Human Health and Nutrition – Volume 1,’ Cakmak, I., and Welch, R. (Eds), Eolss Publishers Co. Ltd, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  8. Cartwright, J. (2016), Evolution and Human Behaviour; Darwinian Perspectives on the Human Condition, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Collins, A. (2014), Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods: The temple of the Watchers and the Discovery of Eden, Bear & Company, Rochester, Vermont, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Constable, N. (2009), World Atlas of Archaeology, Thalamus Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Coolidge, F., and Wynn, T. (2018), The Rise of Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of Modern Thinking, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Crawford, H. (1991), Sumer and the Sumerians, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  13. De Mieroop, M. (2011), A History of Ancient Egypt, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  14. Deady, K. (2012), Great Civilisations, Ancient Egypt, Beyond Pyramids, Capstone Press, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  15. Debertolis, P., Gulla, D., and Savolainen, H. (2017), Archaeoacoustic Analysis in Enclosure D at Gobekli Tepe in South Anatolia, Turkey, History and Archaeology, The 5th Human and Social Sciences at the Common Conference.Google Scholar
  16. Dick, R. (2006), The Indus Valley Civilisation, Evan Brothers Limited, London.Google Scholar
  17. Dietrich O., Notroff J., Schmidt K. (2017), Feasting, Social Complexity, and the Emergence of the Early Neolithic of Upper Mesopotamia: A View from Gobekli Tepe. In: Chacon R., Mendoza R. (eds) Feast, Famine or Fighting?, Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation, Vol 8. Springer, Cham.Google Scholar
  18. Duiker, W., and Spielvogel, J. (2007), World History, Thomson-Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  19. Dumper, M., and Stanley, B. (2007), Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopaedia, ABC-CLIO Inc, Santa Barbara, California.Google Scholar
  20. Ferrara, S. (2015), The beginnings of Writing on Crete: Theory and Context, The Annual of the British School at Athens, 110 (1), pp. 27–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feuer, B. (1983), The northern Mycenaean border in Thessaly, British Archaeological Reports. International Series 176.Google Scholar
  22. Fleagle, J. (2013), Primate Adaptation & Evolution, Elsevier, London.Google Scholar
  23. Fried, M.H. (1967), The evolution of political society, New York (NY): Random House.Google Scholar
  24. Glotz, G. (1998), The Aegean Civilisation, Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Gresky, J., Haelm, J., and Clare, L. (2017), Modified human crania from Gobekli Tepe provide evidence for a new form of Neolithic skull cult, Science Advances, Vol. 3, No.6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hagg, R. (1998), Ancient Greek cult practice from the archaeological evidence: Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Ancient Greek Cult, organised by the (Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae, series 8) (Swedish Edition), Svenska Institutet i Athen.Google Scholar
  27. Halstead, P. (1981), Counting sheep in Neolithic and bronze age Greece. IN Pattern of the Past: Studies in Honour of David Clarke (eds I. Hodder, G. Isaac and N. Hammond). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 307–339.Google Scholar
  28. Halstead, P. (1993), Spondylus shell ornaments from late Neolithic Dimini, Greece: specialised manufacture or unequal accumulation? Antiquity 67, 603–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hendrickx, S., and Vermeersch, P. (2000), Pre-history: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture (700,000 to 4000 BC, IN: The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Shaw, I. (Ed), Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Higgs, E., and Jarman, M. (1969), The Origins of Agriculture: A Reconsideration, Antiquity XLIII.Google Scholar
  31. Hunter, N. (2015), Daily Life in Ancient Sumer, Heinemann-Raintree, Chicago.Google Scholar
  32. Isaakidou, V., and Tomkins, P. (2008), Escaping the Labyrinth: The Cretan Neolithic in Context, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  33. Khaitovich, P., Hellman, I., Enard, W., Nowick, K., Leinweber, M., Franz, H., Weiss, G., Lachmann, M., and Paabo, S. (2005), ‘Parallel Patterns of Evolution in the Genomes and Transcriptomes of Humans and Chimpanzees,’ Vol. 309, Science.Google Scholar
  34. Knappett, CJ. (1999), Tradition and Innovation in Pottery Forming Technology: Wheel-Throwing at Middle Minoan Knossos, BSA 94:101–29.Google Scholar
  35. Kramer, S. (1963), The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character, The University of Chicago Press, London.Google Scholar
  36. Lawler, A. (2008), Boring No More, a Trade-Savvy Indus Emerges, Science, Vol. 320, Issue 5881, pp. 1276–1281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lewin, R. (2005), Human Evolution: An Illustrated Introduction, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.Google Scholar
  38. Li, X., G. Harbottle, J. Zhang, and C. Wang. (2003), The earliest writing? Sign use in the seventh millennium BC at Jiahu, Henan Province, China. Antiquity 77 (295): 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mann, C. (2011), The Birth of Religion, National Geographic Magazine, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/print/2011/06/gobekli-tepe/mann-text
  40. McIntosh, J. (2008), The ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives, ABC-CLIO, Santa-Barbara, California.Google Scholar
  41. McNeil, D. (1967), The Code of Hammurabi, 53 A.B.A. J. 444.Google Scholar
  42. Midant-Reynes, B. (2000), Pre-history: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture (700,000 to 4000 BC): In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Shaw, I. (Ed), Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Moore, O. (2000), Reading the Past: Chinese, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  44. Nemet-Nejat, K. (1998), Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia, Greenwood Press, London.Google Scholar
  45. Notroff, J., Dietrich, O., Dietrich, L., Tvetmarken, C., Kinzel, M., Schlindwein, J., Sanmez, D., and Clare, L. (2017), Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 57–74.Google Scholar
  46. Oliver, J. (1986), Cretan Writing in the Second Millennium BC, World Archaeology, Vol. 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems, pp. 377–389.Google Scholar
  47. Parpola, A. (2015), The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilisation, Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2015, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190226909.001.0001.
  48. Perkins, D. (1999), Encyclopaedia of China: History and Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  49. Possehl, G. (2002), The Indus Civilisation: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc, London.Google Scholar
  50. Roberts, A. (2009), The Incredible Human Journey, Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.Google Scholar
  51. Robinson, A. (2015), The Indus: Lost Civilisations, Reaktion Books, London.Google Scholar
  52. Runnels, C., and Murray, P. (2001), Greece Before History: An Archaeological Companion and Guide, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.Google Scholar
  53. Saggs, H. (2000), Peoples of the Past: Babylonians, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  54. Sankhyan, A., and Rao, V. (2007), Human Origins, Genome and People of India; Genomic, Palaeontological & Archaeological Evidences, Allied Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  55. Sarmiento, E., Sawyer, G., and Milner, R. (2007), The Last Human: A Guide to Twenty-Two Species of Extinct Humans, Yale University Press, London.Google Scholar
  56. Scarre, C., and Stefoff, R. (2003), The Palace of Minos at Knossos, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  57. Schmidt, K. (2010), Gobekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries: New results of ongoing excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reliefs, Docomenta Praehistorica, Ljubljana, Vol. 37, pp. 239–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Scranton, L. (2014), China’s Cosmological Prehistory: The Sophisticated Science Encoded in Civilisation’s Earliest Symbols, Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  59. Sen, B. (2011), Smart Green Civilisations: Indus Valley: Green Lessons from The Past, The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  60. Sen, S. (1988), Ancient Indian History and Civilisation, New Age International, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  61. Shaw, I. (2012), Ancient Egyptian Technology & Innovation, Transformations in Pharaonic Material Culture, Bloomsbury, London.Google Scholar
  62. Sherratt, A. G. (1981), Plough and pastoralism: aspects of the secondary products revolution. IN Pattern of the Past: Studies in Honour of David Clarke (eds I. Hodder, G. Isaac and N. Hammond). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Simmons, A. (2007), The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East; Transforming the Human Landscape, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  64. Stanish, C. (2017), The Evolution of Human Co-operation: Ritual and Social Complexity in Stateless Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Takahata, N., Satta, Y., and Klein, J. (1995), Divergence Time and Population Size in the Lineage Leading to Modern Humans, Theoretical Population Biology, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp. 198–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tanner, H. (2010), China – A History–Volume 1 – From Neolithic Cultures through the Great Qing Empire, Hackett Publishing Company Inc, Indiana, USA.Google Scholar
  67. The Editorial Committee of Chinese Civilisation. (2007), China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilisation, City University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  68. Tierney, J., de Menocal, P., and Zander, P. (2017), A Climatic Context for the out of Africa migration, Geology, 45, 11, pp. 1023–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tomkins, P. (2010), Neolithic Antecedents, IN: The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age (ca. 3000–1000 BC), Cline, E. (Ed), Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Tsountas, K. (1908), Ai Proistorikai Acropolis Diminiou Kai Sesklo, Athens: Athens, Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
  71. Van Andel, T., and Runnels, C. (1988), An essay on the ‘emergence of civilisation’ in Greece and the Aegean, Antiquity 62: 234–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Venn, O., Turner, I., Mathieson, I., de Groot, N., Bontrop, R., and McVean, G. (2014), Strong male bias drives germline mutation in chimpanzees, Science, 344 (6189): 1272–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vinter, J.C. (2011), Ancient Earth Mysteries, AEM Publishing.Google Scholar
  74. Wells, S. (2017), The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  75. Wilkinson, T. (2010), The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt: The History of a Civilisation from 3000 BC to Cleopatra, Bloomsbury, London.Google Scholar
  76. Wrangham, R. (2010), Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, Profile Books Ltd, London.Google Scholar
  77. Wynn, T., Overmann, K., and Coolidge, F. (2016), The False Dichotomy; A Refutation of the Neanderthal Indistinguishability Claim, Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Vol. 94, pp. 201–221.Google Scholar
  78. Yinke, D. (2010), Ancient Chinese Civilisations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  79. Yule, P. (1980), Early Cretan Seals: A Study of Chronology, Philipp von Zabern Verlag, Mainz.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sangaralingam Ramesh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department for Continuing EducationUniversity of Oxford, Rewley HouseOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations