Rb-Sr and Oxygen Isotope Study of the Swat Granite Gneisses (Pakistan): Implications for the Magmatic Source and Tectonic Setup

  • Tahseenullah KhanEmail author
  • Abid Ahmad
  • Hafiz Ur Rehman
  • Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry
  • Mamoru Murata
  • Muhammad Zafar
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


A wide range of granite bodies are lying in the Pakistani Himalaya along the northern leading edge of the Indian plate in the Swat area of Pakistan. Several such bodies are collectively designated here as Swat granite gneisses. The latter are exposed mainly across the Chakdarra, Ilam-Karakar and Saidu-Parona areas. Lens-shaped K-feldspar augens in a groundmass of quartz, feldspar and biotite characterize these bodies. Garnet, epidote, titanite, zircon and opaque minerals are also noticed to persist in minor amounts in the form of prevailing accessories. Both quartz and feldspar appear to display extreme stretching parallel to the predominant foliation due to shearing. On the basis of Rb-Sr geochronology and oxygen isotope composition, the granite gneiss at Chakdarra yields Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of 213 ± 24 Ma. As for the Ilam-Karaker and Saidu-Parona areas, the granite gneisses respectively display age ranges of 260 ± 52 Ma and 285 ± 8 Ma. The δ18O values determined in the Chakdarra, Ilam-Karakar and Saidu-Parona based granite gneisses range from +8.8 to +9.2‰, and +8.6 to +9.4‰ and +9.0 to +9.5‰, respectively. On the basis of mineral assemblages, theses granites seem to be of an S-type. Noteworthy, however, is that the Swat granite gneisses, which contain less than 10‰ of δ18O values, prove to be of the I-type granites. Their peraluminous signatures seem to be due to fractional crystallization process. Our newly obtained age data indicate Permian magmatic activity that belongs to the early rifting of the Cimmerian micro-continent from Gondwana.


Granite gneisses Swat Geochronology Petrogenesis Tectonic setting 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tahseenullah Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abid Ahmad
    • 2
  • Hafiz Ur Rehman
    • 3
  • Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry
    • 4
  • Mamoru Murata
    • 5
  • Muhammad Zafar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesBahria UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Atomic Energy CommissionNilore, IslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Faculty of ScienceKagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Science and Policy, Faculty of Basic SciencesLahore School of Economics, Barki RoadLahorePakistan
  5. 5.Department of Geosciences, Faculty of ScienceNaruto University of EducationTokushimaJapan

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