Climate Change

  • Zekâi ŞenEmail author
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


Climate change and variability are the two prime concerns for future sustainable water, food, energy, agriculture, economy, environment, population, and industry and technology development limitations.


  1. Barnes, S. L., 1964: A technique for maximizing details in numerical map analysis. Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 3: 395–409.Google Scholar
  2. Bergthörsson P. l, and Döös, B. R., (1955). Numerical Weather Map Analysis. Tellus, Vol. 7, No. 3, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug.: 329–340.Google Scholar
  3. Burton, A., Fowler, H. J., Blenkinsop, S., and Kilsby, G. S. (2010). Downscaling transient climate change using a Neyman–Scott Rectangular Pulses stochastic rainfall model. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 381: 18–32.Google Scholar
  4. Cavazos, T., and Hewitson, B.C., (2005). Performance of NCEP–NCAR reanalysis variables in statistical downscaling of daily precipitation. Climate Research, Vol. 28: 95–107.Google Scholar
  5. Cressman, G. P., (1959). An Operational Objective Analysis System. Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 87, No. 10, Oct.: 367–374.Google Scholar
  6. Dabanlı, İ., and Şen, Z., (2017). Turkish Water Foundation (TWF) statistical climate downscaling model procedures and temperature projections. European Water, Vol. 59: 25–32.Google Scholar
  7. Fowler, H. J., Blenkinsop, S., and Tebaldi, C., (2007). Linking climate change modelling to impacts studies?: recent advances in downscaling techniques for hydrological modelling, Int. J. Climatol., 27, 1547–1578,
  8. Gilchrist, B., and Cressman, G.P., (1954). An Experiment in Objective Analysis. Tellus, Vol. 6, No. 4, Stockholm, Sweden: 309–318.Google Scholar
  9. Glick N (1978) ‘Breaking Records and Breaking Boards’,American Mathematical Society.Google Scholar
  10. Goodess, C.M., and Palutikof, J., (1998). Development of daily rainfall scenarios for southeast Spain using a circulation-type approach to downscaling. International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 18: 1051–1083.Google Scholar
  11. Hellström, C., Chen, D., Achberger, C., and Räisänen, J., (2001). Comparison of climate change scenarios for Sweden based on statistical and dynamical downscaling of monthly precipitation. Climate Research, Vol. 19: 45–55.Google Scholar
  12. IPCC (2007), “Working group II contribution to the intergovernmental panel on climate change fourth assessment report climate change 2007: Climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability”: 9–10.Google Scholar
  13. Jones, P.G., Thornton, P.K., and Heinke,J., (2009). Generating characteristic daily weather data using downscaled climate model data from the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment: 19 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Kilsby, C.G., Jones, P.D., Burton, A., Ford, A.C., Fowler, H.J., Harpham, C., James, P., Smith, A., Wilby, R.L., (2007). A daily weather generator for use in climate change studies. Environmental Modeling and Software, Vol. 22: 1705–1719.Google Scholar
  15. Koch, S.E., desJardins, M., and Kocin, P.J., (1983). An interactive Barnes objective map analysis scheme for use with satellite and conventional data. Journal of Climatology and Applied Meteorology, Vol. 22: 1487–1503.Google Scholar
  16. Kundzewitz, Z.W., Mata, L.J., Arnell, N.W., Doell, P., Kabat, P., Jimenez, B., Miller, K.A., Oki, T. and Şen, Z. (2007) ‘Freshwater resources and their management’, in Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., Van der Linden, P.L. and Hanson, C.E. (Eds.): Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptations and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report and of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Mandelbrot, B.B., (1971). A fast fractional Gaussian noise generator. Water Resources Research, Vol. 7(3): 543–553.Google Scholar
  18. Meinshausen, M., Smith, S.J., Calvin, K. et al. (2011). Climatic Change, 109: 213.
  19. Prudhomme, C., Reynard, N., Crooks, S., (2002). Downscaling of global climate models for flood frequency analysis: where are we now? Hydrological Processes, Vol. 16: 1137–1150.Google Scholar
  20. Smith, JB, Tirpak DA (eds.) (1989). The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States. Report to Congress, United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-230-05-89-050, Washington, DC, 409.Google Scholar
  21. Şen Z (1974) Small sample properties of the stochastic processes and the Hurst phenomenon in hydrology. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, University of London, Imperial College of Science and Technology, 296 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Şen, Z., (2008). Spatial Modeling Principles in Earth Sciences. Springer Verlag, 351 page.Google Scholar
  23. Şen, Z., (2009). Precipitation downscaling in climate modelling using a spatial dependence function. International Journal of Global Warming, Vol. 1(1/2/3): 29–42.Google Scholar
  24. Şen, Z., (2010). Critical Assessment of Downscaling Procedures in Climate Change Impact Models, Journal of Ocean and Climate: Science, Technology and Impacts, Vol. 1(2): 85–98.Google Scholar
  25. Şen, Z., (2012). Innovative Trend Analysis Methodology. Journal Hydrol. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 17(9):1042–1046.Google Scholar
  26. Şen, Z., and Habib, Z., (2000). Spatial analysis of monthly precipitation in Turkey. Theor. Appl. Clim. Vol. 61, 1–16.Google Scholar
  27. Şen, Z., Öztopal, A., (2001). Assessment of regional air pollution variability in Istanbul. Environmetrics, Vol. 12(5): 401–420.Google Scholar
  28. Şen, Z., Al Alsheikh, A., Alamoud, A. S. A. M., and Abu-Risheh, A. W., (2012). Quadrangle Downscaling of Global Climate Models and Application to Riyadh, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 138(10):918.Google Scholar
  29. Şen, Z., Uyumaz, A., Cebeci, M., Öztopal, A., Küçükmehmetoğlu, M., Özger, M., Erdik, T., Sırdaş, S., Şahin, A.D., Geymen, A., Oğuz, S. and Karsavran, Y. (2010) The impacts of Climate Change on Istanbul and Turkey Water Resources, 1500p, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  30. Trenberth, K. (ed.), (1993). Climate System Modeling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK: 818 pp.Google Scholar
  31. von Storch, H., Zorita, E. and Cubash, U. 1993: Downscaling of global climate change estimates to regional scales: an application to Iberian rainfall in wintertime. Journal of Climate 6, 1161–71.Google Scholar
  32. Wigley, T.M.L., Jones, P.D., Briffa, K.R. and Smith, G., (1990). Obtaining sub-grid scale information from coarse resolution general circulation model output. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95: 1943–53.Google Scholar
  33. Wilby, R. L., and Wigley, T. M. L., (1997). Downscaling general circulation model output: A review of methods and limitations, Prog. Phys. Geogr., Vol. 21: 530–548.Google Scholar
  34. Wilks, D.S., (1992). Adapting stochastic weather generation algorithms for climate change studies. Climatic Change, Vol. 22: 67–84.Google Scholar
  35. Willems, P., and Vrac, M., (2011). Statistical precipitation downscaling for small-scale hydrological impact investigations of climate change. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 402: 193–205.Google Scholar
  36. Yarnal B, Comrie AC, Frakes B, Brown DP (2001) Review. Developments and prospects in synoptic climatology. Int J Climatol 21:1923–1950.Google Scholar
  37. Zorita, E., and von Storch, H., (1999). The analog method as a simple statistical downscaling technique: comparison with more complicated methods. Journal of Climate, Vol. 12 (8): 2474–2489.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural SciencesIstanbul Medipol UniversityBeykoz, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations