Defining Failure in Articular Cartilage Surgery

  • Drew A. Lansdown
  • Kevin C. Wang
  • Brian J. ColeEmail author


Articular cartilage injury remains a challenging condition for orthopedic surgeons to address. While multiple treatment options exist and have reported improvement in patient symptoms, sustained and successful treatment of symptomatic chondral defects remains elusive in many cases. Physicians may define failure in a multitude of ways such as subsequent surgery, progression to arthroplasty, lack of improvement in outcome measures, lack of hyaline-like repair tissue, or poor appearance on imaging studies. This chapter reviews the current standards for defining treatment failure in order to address the importance of consistent and clear goals for treating cartilage injuries and understanding the outcome tools currently available.


Cartilage restoration Failure Outcomes Articular cartilage injury 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Drew A. Lansdown
    • 1
  • Kevin C. Wang
    • 2
  • Brian J. Cole
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of California, San Francisco School of MedicineSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of OrthopedicsIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

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