Coronal and Axial Alignment: The Effects of Malalignment

  • Luiz Felipe Ambra
  • Andreas H. Gomoll
  • Jack FarrEmail author


The knee joint, when properly aligned, can support several multiples of body weight during activity and do so reliably over a lifetime. When malaligned, however, the loads placed on the joint are improperly distributed and can lead to pain, debilitation, and premature degradation of the articular cartilage. The treatment of chondral defects, therefore, requires a thorough consideration of malalignment pathologies in all three primary planes: coronal, axial, and sagittal. Various radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) views can be used to assess malalignment and plan corrective treatment whether in a staged setting or concomitantly with cartilage restoration. Accurate assessment and consideration of malalignment pathologies is essential to optimizing cartilage restoration outcomes.


Alignment Varus Valgus Anteversion Torsion Morphology Cartilage restoration 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luiz Felipe Ambra
    • 1
  • Andreas H. Gomoll
    • 2
  • Jack Farr
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic and TraumatologyUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryHospital for Special SurgeryNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Cartilage Restoration Center, OrthoIndy HospitalIndianapolisUSA

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