Advertisement

Maintenance and Safety of Sponge City Infrastructure

  • Stephan KösterEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Future City book series (FUCI, volume 12)

Abstract

Sponge City development is embedded in a realignment of urban development with a strict focus on water. In recent years, especially China has undertaken many concrete efforts and high investments in order to promote the Sponge City approach and to galvanize the decision makers to action. China aims at shaping water sponging cities to better cope with climate change and to especially mitigate negative impacts of extreme rainfalls on urban spaces. However, the advantages of green and spongy cities only will develop their full potential if operation and maintenance (O&M) are performed adequately and accurately. Especially, maintenance must be seen as a core element of asset management. In the Sponge City case, adapted preventive maintenance strategies should be pursued comprehensively considering the local (climatic) circumstances so that unnecessary performance losses and further negative side effects do not occur in the Sponge City infrastructure. Sufficient financial resources must be available for this task. In order to minimize future efforts and costs, the findings from previous maintenance activities will be crucial for design modifications or adjustments. Maintenance in Sponge City environments stimulates innovation, assures feedback, shows weak points, enhances reliability, and provides reason to improve the entire urban water system (including the underground infrastructure). If the implementation is successful, the Sponge City might be the starting point for further developments that fuel urban transformation.

Keywords

Sponge City development Asset management Urban water infrastructure Operation and maintenance Best practice 

References

  1. Akpinar A, Barbosa-Leiker C, Brooks KR (2016) Does green space matter? Exploring relationships between green space type and health indicators. Urban For Urban Green 20:S. 407–S. 418.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.10.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Rubaei AM, Engström M, Viklander M, Blecken G-T (2016) Long-term hydraulic and treatment performance of a 19-year old constructed stormwater wetland—finally maturated or in need of maintenance? Ecol Eng 95:S. 73–S. 82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson-Sköld Y, Klingberg J, Gunnarsson B, Cullinane K, Gustafsson I, Hedblom M et al (2018) A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services. J Environ Manag 205:S. 274–S. 285.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.09.071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell JF, Wilson JS, Liu GC (2008) Neighborhood greenness and 2-year changes in body mass index of children and youth. Am J Prev Med 35(6):S. 547–S. 553.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.07.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Besir AB, Cuce E (2018) Green roofs and facades. A comprehensive review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 82:S. 915–S. 939.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chandrappa AK, Biligiri KP (2016) Pervious concrete as a sustainable pavement material – research findings and future prospects. A state-of-the-art review. Constr Build Mater 111:S. 262–S. 274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chui TFM, Liu X, Zhan W (2016) Assessing cost-effectiveness of specific LID practice designs in response to large storm events. J Hydrol 533:S. 353–S. 364.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.12.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dai L, van Rijswick HFMW, Driessen PPJ, Keessen AM (2017) Governance of the Sponge City Programme in China with Wuhan as a case study. Int J Water Resour Dev 34:S. 1–S. 19.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2017.1373637 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Department of Environmental Protection of Montgomery County (2013) How to maintain your POROUS PAVEMENT. Available online at https://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/DEP/Resources/Files/PostersPamphlets/Porous-Pavement-Maintenance.pdf. Last checked on 08.02.2018
  10. Derkzen ML, van Teeffelen AJA, Verburg PH, Diamond S (2015) REVIEW. Quantifying urban ecosystem services based on high-resolution data of urban green space: an assessment for Rotterdam, the Netherlands. J Appl Ecol 52(4):S. 1020–S. 1032.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12469 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eckart K, McPhee Z, Bolisetti T (2017) Performance and implementation of low impact development – a review. Sci Total Environ 607–608:S. 413–S. 432.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.254 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ekkel ED, de Vries S (2017) Nearby green space and human health. Evaluating accessibility metrics. Landsc Urban Plan 157:S. 214–S. 220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gascon M, Zijlema W, Vert C, White MP, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ (2017) Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being. A systematic review of quantitative studies. Int J Hyg Environ Health 220(8):S. 1207–S. 1221.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geiger WF (2015) Sponge city and LID technology — vision and tradition. Landsc Archit Front 3(2):S. 10Google Scholar
  15. Grunewald K, Artmann M, Mathey J, Müller B, Rössler S, SyrBe R-U et al. (2016) Towards green cities in China and Germany. Hg. v. German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) (Policy Brief). Available online at https://www.bfn.de/fileadmin/BfN/service/Dokumente/PolicyBrief_GreenCities_China_Germany_042016_en.pdf. Last checked on 28.02.2018
  16. Gunkel C (2013) The forgotten catastrophe of the century. Die vergessene Jahrhundertkatastrophe. Hg. v. Der Spiegel. Available online at http://www.spiegel.de/einestages/jahrhundertsommer-2003-eine-der-groessten-naturkatastrophen-europas-a-951214.html. Last checked on 05.02.2018
  17. Heal KV (2014) Constructed wetlands for wastewater management. In: Water resources in the built environment. Wiley, Chichester, pp S. 336–S. 349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hering H-J (2017) Regenrückhaltebecken – das Stiefkind der Wasserwirtschaft? KA Betriebsinfo 47:2593–2595Google Scholar
  19. Houle JJ, Roseen RM, Ballestero TP, Puls TA, Sherrard J (2013) Comparison of maintenance cost, labor demands, and system performance for LID and conventional stormwater management. J Environ Eng 139(7):S. 932–S. 938.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000698 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hunt WF, Greenway M, Moore TC, Brown RA, Kennedy SG, Line DE, Lord WG (2011) Constructed storm-water wetland installation and maintenance. Are we getting it right? J Irrig Drain Eng 137(8):S. 469–S. 474.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000326 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ives CD, Oke C, Hehir A, Gordon A, Wang Y, Bekessy SA (2017) Capturing residents’ values for urban green space. Mapping, analysis and guidance for practice. Landsc Urban Plan 161:S. 32–S. 43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jia H, Yao H, Tang Y, Yu SL, Field R, Tafuri AN (2015) LID-BMPs planning for urban runoff control and the case study in China. J Environ Manag 149:S. 65–S. 76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jia H, Wang Z, Yu SL (2016) Opportunity and challenge-China’s Sponge City plan. hydrolink 4:100–102Google Scholar
  24. Jia H, Wang Z, Zhen X, Clar M, Yu SL (2017) China’s sponge city construction. A discussion on technical approaches. Front Environ Sci Eng 11(4):S. 18.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-017-0984-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jiang Y, Zevenbergen C, Fu D (2017) Understanding the challenges for the governance of China’s “sponge cities” initiative to sustainably manage urban stormwater and flooding. Nat Hazards 89(1):S. 521–S. 529.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-017-2977-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johannessen BG, Hanslin HM, Muthanna TM (2017) Green roof performance potential in cold and wet regions. Ecol Eng 106:S. 436–S. 447.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Joksimovic D, Alam Z (2014) Cost efficiency of low impact development (LID) Stormwater management practices. Procedia Eng 89:S. 734–S. 741.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.11.501 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee HHY, Scott D (2009) Overview of maintenance strategy, acceptable maintenance standard and resources from a building maintenance operation perspective. J Build Apprais 4(4):S. 269–S. 278.  https://doi.org/10.1057/jba.2008.46 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li X, Li J, Fang X, Gong Y, Wang W (2016) Case studies of the sponge city program in China. In: Pathak CS und Reinhart DR (Hg.): World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2016. Watershed Management, Irrigation and Drainage, and Water Resources Planning and Management. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2016. West Palm Beach, Florida, May 22–26, 2016. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers, S. 295–S. 308Google Scholar
  30. Li F, Liu X, Zhang X, Zhao D, Liu H, Zhou C, Wang R (2017a) Urban ecological infrastructure. An integrated network for ecosystem services and sustainable urban systems. J Clean Prod 163(Supplement):S12–S18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li H, Ding L, Ren M, Li C, Wang H (2017b) Sponge City construction in China. A survey of the challenges and opportunities. Water 9(9):S. 594.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090594 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li H, Cui X, Zhang D-L (2017c) A statistical analysis of hourly heavy rainfall events over the Beijing metropolitan region during the warm seasons of 2007–2014. Int J Climatol 37(11):S. 4027–S. 4042.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4983 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu D (2016) Water supply: China’s sponge cities to soak up rainwater. Nature 537(7620):S. 307.  https://doi.org/10.1038/537307c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu H, Jia Y, Niu C (2017) “Sponge City” concept helps solve China’s urban water problems. Environ Earth Sci 76(14):S. 473.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-6652-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Luckett K (2009) Green roof construction and maintenance. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. MoF: Central government circular on the sponsorship of the pilot sponge cities. Ministry of Finance of the People’s Republic of China. Available online at http://jjs.mof.gov.cn/zhengwuxinxi/tongzhigonggao/201501/t20150115_1180280.html. Last checked on 24.01.2018
  37. MOHURD (2018) Urban development statistical yearbook 2016. Published by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China. Available online at http://www.mohurd.gov.cn/xytj/tjzljsxytjgb/, zuletzt geprüft am 24.01.2018
  38. NASA (2012) Heavy rains in Beijing. NASA earth observatory image by Jesse Allen, using data from the TRMM science data and information system at Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Michon Scott. NASA earth observatory. Available online at https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=78626. Last checked on 05.02.2018
  39. NRMCA (2015) Pervious concrete pavement maintenance and operations guide. With the cooperation of National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. Available online at http://www.perviouspavement.org/downloads/pervious_maintenance_operations_guide.pdf. Last checked on 08.02.2018
  40. Ren N, Wang Q, Wang Q, Huang H, Wang X (2017) Upgrading to urban water system 3.0 through Sponge City construction. Front Environ Sci Eng 11(4):S. 9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-017-0960-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rumble H, Finch P, Gange AC (2018) Green roof soil organisms. Anthropogenic assemblages or natural communities? Appl Soil Ecol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2018.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shao W, Zhang H, Liu J, Yang G, Chen X, Yang Z, Huang H (2016) Data integration and its application in the Sponge City construction of China. Procedia Engineering 154:779–786.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.583 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shepard W (2016) Can ‘sponge cities’ solve China’s urban flooding problem? Hg. v. Cityscope. Available online at http://citiscope.org/story/2016/can-sponge-cities-solve-chinas-urban-flooding-problem, zuletzt aktualisiert am 28.07.2016. Last checked on 22.01.2018
  44. Silva JMC d, Wheeler E (2017) Ecosystems as infrastructure. Perspect Ecol Conserv 15(1):S. 32–S. 35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecon.2016.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Silva CM, Flores-Colen I, Coelho A (2015) Green roofs in Mediterranean areas – survey and maintenance planning. Build Environ 94:S. 131–S. 143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.07.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. US EPA (1999) Preliminary data summary of urban storm water best management practices. United States Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  47. US EPA; OW; OWM; Water Permits Division; Municipal Branch (2009) Stormwater wet pon and wetland management guidebook, February 2009, last checked on 02.05.2017Google Scholar
  48. Vijayaraghavan K (2016) Green roofs. A critical review on the role of components, benefits, limitations and trends. Renew Sust Energ Rev 57:S. 740–S. 752.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang Y, Sun M, Song B (2017) Public perceptions of and willingness to pay for Sponge City initiatives in China. Resour Conserv Recycl 122:S. 11–S. 20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. WHO (2016) Urban green spaces and health. A review of evidence. Hg. v. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, last checked on 02.05.2017Google Scholar
  51. Workman J (2017) The hard road to ‘soft’ cities. The Source 7:S. 28–S. 32Google Scholar
  52. Xia J, Zhang YY, Xiong LH, He S, Wang LF, Yu ZB (2017) Opportunities and challenges of the Sponge City construction related to urban water issues in China. Sci China Earth Sci 60(4):S. 652–S. 658.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-016-0111-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang J, Cui X, Li L, Huang D (2017) Sediment transport and pore clogging of a porous pavement under surface runoff. Road Materials and Pavement Design 18(sup3):S. 240–S. 248.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2017.1329878 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhou X, Bai Z, Yang Y (2017) Linking trends in urban extreme rainfall to urban flooding in China. Int J Climatol 104(2456809):S. 415.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Waste ManagementLeibniz University HannoverHanoverGermany

Personalised recommendations