Advertisement

Five Transformative Episodes in the History of the American Hospital

  • Edward C. Halperin
Chapter

Abstract

Our historical idea of a hospital as a place of hospitable refuge and/or a place for the provision of scientifically skilled and compassionate care for the sick has evolved. Hospitals are now linked to outpatient care, health professions education, biomedical research, and employment of physicians and frequently constitute a major component of the local economy. They are unquestionably an important part of the national economy.

In this chapter the author explores five transformative episodes in the history of the American hospital: the founding of public hospitals, the creation of a robust system of Roman Catholic hospitals, the rise and fall of the American Jewish hospital, the desegregation of southern hospitals during the US civil rights movement, and the changing relationship between hospitals and medical schools in the provision of undergraduate medical education.

These episodes illustrate how the historical development of American hospitals, like all of medical history, is a fundamentally social activity that takes place in a particular context of time and place.

Keywords

For-profit medical education History of hospitals History of public hospitals Hospital desegregation Jewish hospitals Offshore medical schools Roman Catholic hospitals 

References

  1. 1.
    Zborowski M. People in pain. Hoboken: Wiley, Jossey-Bass; 1969.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roth P. Portnoy’s complaint. New York: Random House; 1969.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rise GB. Mending bodies, saving souls: a history of hospitals. New York: Oxford University Press; 1999.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stevens R. In sickness and in wealth: American hospitals in the twentieth century. New York: Basic Books, Inc; 1989.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    The compact edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. Volume I. A-O. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1985, p. 1336–1337.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cutter JB. Early hospital history in the United States. California State Med J. 1922;20:272–4.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ellis ER. The epic of New York City. New York: Carroll and Graf publishers; 1966.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mortimer D. Jones collection on the Kings County Hospital, 1903–1930s. Call number 1994.008. Brooklyn Historical Society Library, 128 Pierrepont Street, Brooklyn NY 11201.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greenberg SJ. Cor et Manus: a history of New York Medical College. Valhalla: New York Medical College. [In press, 2018].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cunningham A, Grell OP. Health care and poor relief in Protestant Europe 1500–1700. London: Routledge; 1997.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    White KR. When institutions collide: the competing forces of hospitals sponsored by the Roman Catholic Church. Religions. 2013;4:14–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Ethical and religious directives for Catholic health care services. 5th ed. Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops; 2009.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martin N. The growth of catholic hospitals, by the numbers. Propublica December 18, 2013. https://www.propublica.org/article/the-growth-of-catholic-hospitals-by-the-numbers. Accessed 12 Oct 2017.
  14. 14.
    Tamesha Means v. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops – complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division. November 29, 2013.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wall BM. American Catholic Hospitals: a century of changing markets and missions. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sarna JD. American Judaism: a history. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 20–4.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Halperin EC. The Jewish problem in U.S. medical education 1920–1950. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2001;56:140–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Halperin EC. The rise and fall of the American Jewish hospital. Acad Med. 2012;87:610–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bridge DE. The rise and development of the Jewish hospital in America [thesis]. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion; 1985.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Halperin EC. Special report: desegregation of hospitals and medical societies in North Carolina. New Eng J Med. 1988;318:58–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Halperin EC. The poor, the Black, and the marginalized as the source of cadavers in United States anatomical education. Clin Anat. 2007;20:489–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beardsley EH. Good-bye to Jim Crow: the desegregation of southern hospitals. 1945–1970. Bull History Med. 1986;60:367–86.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smith DB. The power to heal: civil rights, Medicare, and the struggle to transform America’s health care system. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press; 2016.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smith DB. Forgotten heroes: remembering Dr. Alvin Blount who helped integrate America’s hospitals. Health Affairs Blog, September 1, 2017. http://www.healthaffairs.org/doi 10.1377/hblog20170901.061774/full/. Accessed 12 Jan 2018.
  25. 25.
    Simkins V, Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital. Federal Reporter, 2nd series. Vol. 323. St. Paul, Minn: West Publishing. 1964:959–977.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Simkins V, Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital. Federal Supplement 628. Vol. 211. St. Paul, Minn: West Publishing, 1963:688–741.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Simkins V. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital. Supreme Court Reporter. Vol. 84. St. Paul, Minn: West Publishing. 1965:793.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Welch WH. Papers and addresses by William Henry Welch in three volumes, vol. III. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press; 1920. p. 38–139.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kletke PR, Emmons DW, Gillis KD. Current trends in physicians’ practice arrangements: from owners to employees. JAMA. 1996;276:555–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Edelstein L. The Hippocratic oath: text, translation, and interpretation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press; 1943.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ludmerer K. Time to heal: American medical education from the turn of the century to the era of managed care. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hospital merger and acquisition activity continues upward trend, according to Kaufman Hall analysis. Health System Management. January 24, 2017. Accessed 6 Oct 2017. http://health-system-management.advanceweb.com/hospital-merger-and-acquisition-activity-continues-upward-trend-according-to-kaufman-hall-analysis/.
  33. 33.
    Halperin EC, Goldberg RB. Offshore medical schools are buying clinical clerkships in U.S. hospitals: the problem and potential solutions. Acad Med. 2016;91:639–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rymer M. Offshore Med school’s scholarship deal has city college’s steamed: the Grenada invasion. The Village Voice. August 8, 2012.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Young KM, Kroth PJ. Chapter three: hospitals: origin, organization, and performance in Sultz and Young’s health care USA. 9th ed. Burlington: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2017. p. 69–119.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA

Personalised recommendations