Material Analysis Using Raman Spectroscopy

A Comparative Study of Graphite, Single- and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes
  • Animesh K. Ojha
  • H. Michael HeiseEmail author
Part of the Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics book series (COCH, volume 26)


A comparative Raman spectroscopic study of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), special multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) material, and graphite is presented. Their Raman spectra have been recorded using different excitation wavelengths, 532, 785, and 1064 nm, in the region of 1800–1200 cm−1. The G-bands of SWCNTs observed at all excitation wavelengths were fitted taking bands into account with Breit-Wigner-Fano (BWF) and Lorentzian line shape functions. The contribution of both BWF and Lorentzian line shapes to the asymmetric G-band shows a mixture of semiconducting as well as metallic CNTs in the SWCNTs. For graphite and MWCNTs, only Lorentzian line shape functions were used for band deconvolution. The variation in wavenumber position of component bands of G-band with laser lines may be due to the resonance Raman effect, where the energy of laser lines matches with the electronic transition energy of CNTs with different diameters and chirality. The apparent Young’s modulus of SWCNT and MWCNT materials was determined using the integrated band intensity ratio of G- and D-bands, ID/IG, and it was found that the SWCNTs have a larger value of the apparent Young’s modulus compared to that of the highly aligned MWCNT material.



AKO is grateful to the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for the award of a research fellowship. The authors would like to express sincere thanks to Prof. B. P. Asthana and Dr. A. Srivastava for the MWCNT material and suggestions to initiate this work.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsMotilal Nehru National Institute of TechnologyAllahabadIndia
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Center for Life SciencesSouth-Westphalia University of Applied SciencesIserlohnGermany

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