Advertisement

The Counterfeit Fashion Industry and Consumer Understandings of Harm

  • Joanna Large
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Risk, Crime and Society book series (PSRCS)

Abstract

This chapter explores why consumers buy counterfeit goods within broader discussions around attitudes towards crime, harm and victimisation. In addition to examining the impacts of the counterfeit industry, this chapter examines the inter-related nature of the counterfeit and legitimate industry. Despite debates about counterfeit goods tending to centre on harm (or lack of harm in some cases), it is clear that ideals of direct and deserving victimisation play an important role in shaping responses towards the debate. Despite the notional focus on harm, these debates fail to engage with a consideration of harm that moves beyond the focus on individual consumers, business and criminal activity. The chapter argues that counterfeit consumption needs to be understood within the context of the harmful nature of contemporary consumer capitalism.

Keywords

Harm Attitudes towards crime and harm Victimisation Fashion industry 

References

  1. AACP. (undated). Proving the Connection. Links between Intellectual Property Theft and Organised Crime. Alliance Against Intellectual Property Theft (formerly Alliance Against Counterfeiting and Piracy). Available from: http://www.allianceagainstiptheft.co.uk/downloads/reports/Proving-the-Connection.pdf. Accessed 10 Sept 2007.
  2. Action Fraud. (2017). Counterfeit Goods Fraud. Action Fraud National Fraud and Cyber Crime Reporting Centre. Available from: https://www.actionfraud.police.uk/fraud_protection/counterfeit_goods. Accessed 1 Dec 2017.
  3. AIM. (2005, April). Faking It: Why Counterfeiting Matters. Briefing Paper. Association des Industries de Marque. European Brands Association. BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. (1999). The Campaign Against Dangerous Counterfeit Goods. In R. E. Kendall (Ed.), International Criminal Police Review: Special Issue on Counterfeiting. Lyon. ICPO/Interpol. Available from: http://counterfeiting.unicri.it/docs/International%20Criminal%20Police%20Review.pdf. Accessed 13 June 2011.
  5. Antonopoulos, G. A., Hall, A., Large, J., Shen, A., Crang, M., & Andrews, M. (2018). Fake Goods, Real Money. The Counterfeiting Business and Its Financial Management. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauman, Z. (2008). Does Ethics Have a Chance in a World of Consumers? Harvard: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Box, S. (1983). Power, Crime and Mystification. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Branigan, W. (1999, January 14). Top Clothing Retailers Labelled Labour Abusers: Sweatshops Allegedly Run on US Territory. The Washington Post.Google Scholar
  9. Brisman, A., & South, N. (2014). Green Cultural Criminology: Constructions of Environmental Harm, Consumerism and Resistance to Ecocide. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Brookman, F., Maguire, M., Pierpoint, H., & Bennett, T. (2010). Part Two: Fraud and Fakes – Introduction. In F. Brookman, M. Maguire, H. Pierpoint, & T. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook on Crime. Devon: Willan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brooks, A. (2015). Clothing Poverty. The Hidden World of Fast Fashion and Second-Hand Clothes. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  12. Christie, N. (1986). The Ideal Victim. In E. A. Fattah (Ed.), From Crime Policy to Victim Policy. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Clean Clothes Campaign. (2017a). Rana Plaza. Available from: https://cleanclothes.org/safety/ranaplaza. Accessed 6 Jan 2017.
  14. Clean Clothes Campaign. (2017b). Press Release 05.01.17: Bangladeshi Garment Workers Face Mass Firings and Criminal Charges. Available from: https://cleanclothes.org/news/2017/01/05/bangladeshi-garment-workers-face-mass-firings-and-criminal-charges. Accessed 6 Jan 2017.
  15. Croall, H. (2010). Middle-Range Business Crime. In F. Brookman, M. Maguire, H. Pierpoint, & T. Bennett (Eds.), The Handbook on Crime. Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
  16. DEFRA. (2007). Maximising Reuse and Recycling of UK Clothing and Textiles. London: Department for Environmental Food and Rural Affairs.Google Scholar
  17. Dickson, M. A. (2005). Identifying and Profiling Apparel Label Users. In R. Harrison, T. Newholm, & D. Shaw (Eds.), The Ethical Consumer. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. EcoWatch. (2015). Fast Fashion Is the Second Dirtiest Industry in the World, Next to Big Oil. EcoWatch. Available from: http://www.ecowatch.com/fast-fashion-is-the-second-dirtiest-industry-in-the-world-next-to-big%2D%2D1882083445.html. Accessed 6 Jan 2017.
  19. Europol. (2017). Counterfeit Products: Why Buying Fakes Can be Bad for Your Health (and more). Europol. The Hague. Available from: https://www.europol.europa.eu/publications-documents/counterfeit-products-why-buying-fakes-can-be-bad-for-your-health-and-more. Accessed 1 Dec 2017.
  20. Guardian. (2016). Rana Plaza collapse: 38 Charged With Murder Over Garment Factory Disasters. The Guardian. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/18/rana-plaza-collapse-murder-charges-garment-factory. Accessed 6 Jan 2017.
  21. Hall, S., & Winlow, S. (2015). Revitalizing Criminological Theory. Towards a New Ultra –Realism. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harrison, R., Newholme, T., & Shaw, D. (2005). Introduction. In R. Harrison, T. Newholm, & D. Shaw (Eds.), The Ethical Consumer. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Hilton, B., Choi, C. J., & Chen, S. (2004). The Ethics of Counterfeiting in the Fashion Industry: Quality, Credence and Profit Issues. Journal of Business Ethics, 55, 345–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ho, H. P. Y., & Choi, T. M. (2012). A Five-R Analysis for Sustainable Fashion Supply Chain Management in Hong Kong: A Case Analysis. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 16(2), 161–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hobbs, D. (1998). Going Down the Glocal. The Local Context of Organised Crime. The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, 37(4), 407–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hobbs, D. (2002). The Firm: Organisational Logic and Criminal Culture on Shifting Terrain. British Journal of Criminology, 42(1), 549–560.Google Scholar
  27. Hobbs, D. (2013). Lush Life. Constructing Organised Crime in the UK. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoskins, T. E. (2014). Stitched Up. The Anti-Capitalist Book of Fashion. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
  29. Hudson, R. (2019). Economic Geographies of the (il)legal and the (il)licit. In T. Hall & V. Scalia (Eds.), A Research Agenda in Global Crime. London: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  30. Human Rights Watch. (2015). Whoever Raises Their Head Suffers the Most. Workers’ Rights in Bangladesh’s Garment Factories. Available from: https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/04/22/whoever-raises-their-head-suffers-most/workers-rights-bangladeshs-garment. Accessed 6 Jan 2017.
  31. Hvass, K. K. (2014). Post-Retail Responsibility of Garments – A Fashion Industry Perspective. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 18(4), 413–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. IPCG. (2007). Intellectual Property Crime Report. Intellectual Property Crime Group. UK Intellectual Property Office. Available from: http://www.ipo.gov.uk/ipcreport07.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2008.
  33. IPCG. (2010). Intellectual Property Crime Report 2009–2010. Intellectual Property Crime Group. UK Intellectual Property Office. Available from: http://www.ipo.gov.uk/ipcreport09.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2011.
  34. IPCG. (2017). IP Crime and Enforcement Report 2016–17. Intellectual Property Crime Group. UK Intellectual Property Office. Newport. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/annual-ip-crime-and-enforcement-report-2016-to-2017. Accessed 1 Dec 2017.
  35. IPO. (2016). Protecting Creativity, Supporting Innovation: IP Enforcement 2020. Intellectual Property Office. Newport. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/571604/IP_Enforcement_Strategy.pdf. Accessed 16 Dec 2017.
  36. Ji, M. F., & Wood, W. (2007). Purchase and Consumption Habits: Not Necessarily What You Intend. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(4), 261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones, R. (2016). Violent Borders. Refugees and the Right to Move. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  38. Klein, N. (2005). No Logo. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  39. Large, J. (2015). Get Real Don’t Buy Fakes. Fashion Fakes and Flawed Policy: The Problem with Taking a Consumer – Responsibility Approach to Reducing the Problem of Counterfeiting. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 15(2), 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Levi, M. (2007). Organised Crime and Terrorism. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan, & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Levi, M. (2014). Thinking About Organised Crime. The RUSI Journal, 159(1), 6–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lloyd, A. (2019). The Harms of Work. An Ultra-Realist Account of the Service Economy. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  43. May, C. (2017). Transnational Crime and the Developing World. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity [GFI].Google Scholar
  44. Morgan, L. R., & Birtwistle, G. (2009). An Investigation of Young Fashion Consumers’ Disposable Habits. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33, 190–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mostafanezhad, M. (2017). Volunteer Tourism. Popular Humanitarianism in Neoliberal Times. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. National Crime Agency. (2017). Crime Threats. Available from: http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/crime-threats/intellectual-property-crime. Accessed 16 Dec 2017.
  47. OECD. (1998). The Economic Impact of Counterfeiting. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/11/2090589.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2011.
  48. OECD and EUIPO. (2016). Global Trade in Fake Goods Worth Nearly Half a Trillion Dollars a Year, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD] and European Union Intellectual Property Office [EUIPO]. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/industry/global-trade-in-fake-goods-worth-nearly-half-a-trillion-dollars-a-year.htm. Accessed 22 Oct 2016.
  49. Panorama. (2008, Monday 23rd June). Primark: On the Rack. Panorama. BBC One. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/7461496.stm. Accessed 13 June 2011.
  50. Patent Office [Now Known as the UK Intellectual Property Office]. (2004). Counter Offensive: An IP Crime Strategy. Department for Trade and Industry (DTI). Available from: http://www.ipo.gov.uk/ipcrimestrategy.pdf. Accessed 12 June 2011.
  51. Pemberton, S. (2015). Harmful Societies. In Understanding Social Harm. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  52. Presdee, M. (2000). Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Quattri, M., & Watkins, K. (2016). Child Labour and Education. A Survey of Slum Settlements in Dhaka. Overseas Development Institute. London. Available from: https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/11145.pdf. Accessed 06 Jan 2017.
  54. Ross, A. (Ed.). (1997). No Sweat. Fashion, Free Trade and the Rights of Garment Workers. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  55. Rojek, C. (2017). Counterfeit Commerce; Relations of Production, Distribution and Exchange. Cultural Sociology, 11(1), 28–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Safi, M. (2016). Bangladesh garment factories sack hundreds after pay protests. The Guardian. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/dec/27/bangladesh-garment-factories-sack-hundreds-after-pay-protests. Accessed 6 Jan 2017.
  57. Scott, S. (2018). Labour Exploitation and Work-Based Harm. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  58. Siegle, L. (2011). To Die for. Is Fashion Wearing Out the World? London: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  59. Smith, O. (2014). Contemporary Adulthood and the Night Time Economy. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Smith, O., & Raymen, T. (2018). Deviant Leisure: A Criminological Perspective. Theoretical Criminology, 22(1), 63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sykes, G. M., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of Neutralisation: A Theory of Delinquency’. American Sociological Review, 22(6), 664–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tombs, S. (2004). Workplace Injury and Death: Social Harm and the Illusions of Law. In P. Hillyard, C. Pantazis, S. Tombs, & D. Gordon (Eds.), Beyond Criminology: Taking Harm Seriously. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
  63. Tombs, S. (2010). Corporate Violence and Harm. In F. Brookman, M. Maguire, H. Pierpoint, & T. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook on Crime. Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
  64. Tombs, S., & Whyte, D. (2007). Safety Crimes. Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
  65. von Lampe, K. (2016). Organised Crime. Analysing Illegal Activities, Criminal Structures & Extra Legal Governance. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  66. Wall, D. S., & Large, J. (2010). Jailhouse Frocks: Locating the Public Interest in Policing Counterfeit Luxury Fashion Goods. British Journal of Criminology, 50(6), 1094–1116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. White, R., & Heckenberg, D. (2014). Green Criminology. An Introduction to the Study of Environmental Harm. Oxon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. WRAP. (2017, July). Valuing Our Clothes. The Cost of UK Fashion. WRAP. Available from: http://www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/valuing-our-clothes-the-cost-of-uk-fashion_WRAP.pdf. Accessed 2 Jan 2018.
  69. Yar, M. (2005). A Deadly Faith in Fakes: Trademark Theft and the Global Trade in Counterfeit Automotive Components. Internet Journal of Criminology. www.internetjournalofcriminology.com.
  70. Yar, M. (2012). Critical Criminology, Critical Theory and Social Harm. In S. Hall & S. Winlow (Eds.), New Directions in Criminological Theory. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanna Large
    • 1
  1. 1.School for Policy StudiesUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations