Advertisement

Conclusions on Support for Police Militarization by Police Officers, Police Executives, and Members of the U. S. Congress

  • Frederick W. TurnerII
  • Bryanna Fox
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSCRIMINOL)

Abstract

The study highlighted in this book was conducted to examine the support for PM by the key stakeholders of the practice, to include members of the 114th Congress U.S. House of Representatives, police executives, and police officers in the United States. This chapter includes a review of the findings from the study, key takeaways, practical and theoretical implications of these findings, study limitations, and directions for future research.

Keywords

Police militarization Congress Law enforcement Opinion Policy 

References

  1. Bendery, J., & Grim, R. (2014, August 15). Here’s how lawmakers use the war on terror to defend police militarization. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/15/congress-police-militarization_n_5682286.html.
  2. Bittner, E. (1970). The functions of the police in modern society. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  3. Black, D. (1976). The behavior of law. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Clair, M., & Winter, A. S. (2016). How judges think about racial disparities: Situational decision-making in the criminal justice system. Criminology, 54, 332–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. den Heyer, G. (2011). Filling the security gap: Military or police. Police Practice and Research, 12(6), 460–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Easton, M. (2012). Processes of militarization in policing. In E. Devroe, P. Ponsaers, L. Gunther Moor, J. Greene, L. Skinns, L. Bisschop, A. Verhage, & M. Bacon (Eds.), Tides and currents in police theories (Vol. 4, pp. 263–272). Antwerp: Maklu.Google Scholar
  7. Ekins, E. (2016). Policing in America: Understanding public attitudes toward the police. Results from a national survey. CATO Institute. Retrieved from https://www.cato.org/publications/working-paper/policing-america-understanding-public-attitudes-toward-police-results#policing-in-america-toc.
  8. Enloe, C. A. (1980). Police, military and ethnicity: Foundations of state power. New York: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  9. Fox, B., Moule, Jr. R. K., & Parry, M. (2018). Categorically complex: A latent class analysis of public perceptions of police militarization. Journal of Criminal Justice, 58, 33–46.Google Scholar
  10. Gershon, S. A. (2012). Media coverage of minority congresswomen and voter evaluations: Evidence from an online experimental study. Political Research Quarterly, 66(3), 702–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kraska, P. (1996). Enjoying militarism: Political/personal dilemmas in studying U.S. police paramilitary units. Justice Quarterly, 13, 405–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kraska, P. (1999). Questioning the militarization of U.S. police: Critical versus advocacy scholarship. Policing and Society, 9(2), 141–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kraska, P. (2001). Militarizing the American criminal justice system: The changing roles of the armed forces and the police. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Kraska, P. (2007). Militarization and policing: Its relevance to 21st century police. Policing, 1(4), 501–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kraska, P. B., & Cubellis, L. J. (1997). Militarizing Mayberry and beyond: Making sense of American paramilitary policing. Justice Quarterly, 14(4), 607–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kraska, P. B., & Kappeler, V. E. (1997). Militarizing American police: The rise and normalization of paramilitary units. Social Problems, 44(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lockwood, B., Doyle, M. D., & Comiskey, J. G. (2018). Armed, but too dangerous? Factors associated with citizen support for the militarization of the police. Criminal Justice Studies, 31(2), 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Manning, J. E. (2011). Membership of the 111th Congress: A profile. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://www.senate.gov/CRSReports/crspublish.cfm?pid=%260BL%29PL%3B%3D%0A.
  19. Meeks, D. (2006). Police militarization in urban areas: The obscure war against the underclass. Black Scholar, 35(4), 33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mok, J. (2013, June 11). Bombing images normalize fears and build support for the global war on terror. Global Post. Retrieved from http://www.globalpost.com/dispatches/globalpost-blogs/commentary/Bombing-images-violence-war-on-terror.
  21. Moule, Jr. R. K., Fox, B., & Parry, M. (2018). The long shadow of Ferguson: Legitimacy, legal cynicism, and public perceptions of police militarization. Crime & Delinquency. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128718770689.
  22. Page, S. (2014, August 26). Poll: Whites and blacks question police accountability. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/08/25/usa-today-pew-poll-police-tactics-military-equipment/14561633/.
  23. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. (2015). Final report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Retrieved from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/taskforce/taskforce_finalreport.pdf.Google Scholar
  24. Tobias, J. J. (1972). Police and public in the United Kingdom. Journal of Contemporary History, 7(1), 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick W. TurnerII
    • 1
  • Bryanna Fox
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate SchoolKeiser UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Department of CriminologyUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations