Testing the Moderating Effects of Demographic Traits on Support for Police Militarization in a Sample of Police Officers, Police Executives, and Members of the U. S. Congress

  • Frederick W. TurnerII
  • Bryanna Fox
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSCRIMINOL)


Some research and popular belief suggests that certain demographic traits moderate an individuals’ support for policing practices, to include PM. Therefore, this chapter addresses the third research question and includes examination of the effect of demographic features on support for each aspect of PM using a variety of regression and PSM analyses. Results of logistic regression models showed that professional position had a moderating effect on the support for PM with law enforcement generally indicating more support than members of Congress, even after controlling for all demographic measures. Only one other covariate, veteran status, was found to be a significant predictor of PM in the model. When the PSM was employed, race/ethnicity showed limited moderating effects on support for PM, in which White participants were more likely to support PM as compared to the Non-White participants. Finally, veteran status was also not shown to have significant moderating effects on most aspects of PM, although veterans were more likely to support PM when compared to non-veterans.


Police militarization Congress Law enforcement Opinion Demographics Moderating effects Propensity score matching 


  1. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (2013, March 6). Militarization of local law enforcement erodes civil liberties, encourages overly aggressive policing. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick W. TurnerII
    • 1
  • Bryanna Fox
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate SchoolKeiser UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Department of CriminologyUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

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