Advertisement

Compression Therapy in Lymphoedema

  • V. K. Shukla
  • Vivek Srivastava
Chapter

Abstract

Lymphoedema is a distressing condition due to accumulation of excess of lymph into intertstitial space causing not only unsightly swelling but also its complications of skin and psychological adverse effects. Lymphoedema may be primary, as a result of a genetic abnormality, or secondary, as a result of injury, including non-accidental injury, or following treatments such as radiotherapy and/or surgery. Compression therapy is the mainstay of lymphoedema management as this condition is rarely curable and has high chances of relapse. Thus selection of appropriate compression therapy both for the amelioration of acute condition and maintenance of remission is needed. The specific indications of the type of compression required and its specific contraindication for use must be kept in mind so that treatment adherence can be ensured.

Keywords

Lymphoedema Compression Bandage Garments Evidence 

References

  1. 1.
    Handley WS. Two cases of lymphangioplasty for the brawny arm of breast cancer. Proc R Soc Med. 1908;1.(Clin Sect:186–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rockson SG. The unique biology of lymphatic edema. Lymphat Res Biol. 2009;7(2):97–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brorson H, Ohlin K, Olsson G, Nilsson M. Adipose tissue dominates chronic arm lymphoedema following breast cancer: an analysis using volume rendered CT images. Lymphat Res Biol. 2006;4(4):199–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brorson H, Ohlin K, Olsson G, Karlsson MK. Breast cancer-related chronic arm lymphoedema is associated with excess adipose and muscle tissue. Lymphat Res Biol. 2009;7(1):3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Warren AG, Brorson H, Borud LJ, Slavin SA. Lymphoedema: a comprehensive review. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;59(4):464–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Levick JR, Michel CC. Microvascular fluid exchange and the revised Starling principle. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87(2):198–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mortimer PS, Levick JR. Chronic peripheral oedema: the critical role of the lymphatic system. Clin Med. 2004;4(5):448–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Planas-Paz L, Lammert E. Mechanical forces in lymphatic vascular development and disease. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70(22):4341–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breslin JW. Mechanical forces and lymphatic transport. Microvasc Res. 2014;96:46–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Browse NL, Stewart G. Lymphoedema: pathophysiology and classification. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1985;26(2):91–106.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Larsen OA, Lassen NA, Quaade F. Blood flow through human adipose tissue determined with radioactive xenon. Acta Physiol Scand. 1966;66(3):337–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smahel J. Adipose tissue in plastic surgery. Ann Plast Surg. 1986;16(5):444–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ryan TJ. Lymphatics and adipose tissue. Clin Dermatol. 1995;13(5):493–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Casley-Smith JR, Gaffney RM. Excess plasma proteins as a cause of chronic inflammation and lymphodema: quantitative electron microscopy. J Pathol. 1981;133(3):243–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gaffney RM, Casley-Smith JR. Excess plasma proteins as a cause of chronic inflammation and lymphoedema: biochemical estimations. J Pathol. 1981;133(3):229–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zampell JC, Aschen S, Weitman ES, Yan A, Elhadad S, De Brot M, et al. Regulation of adipogenesis by lymphatic fluid stasis: part I. Adipogenesis, fibrosis, and inflammation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129(4):825–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aschen S, Zampell JC, Elhadad S, Weitman E, De Brot M, Mehrara BJ. Regulation of adipogenesis by lymphatic fluid stasis: part II. Expression of adipose differentiation genes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129(4):838–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Levi B, Glotzbach JP, Sorkin M, Hyun J, Januszyk M, Wan DC, et al. Molecularanalysis and differentiation capacity of adipose-derived stem cells from lymphoedema tissue. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;132(3):580–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Greene AK. Epidemiology and morbidity of lymphoedema. In: Greene A, Slavin S, Brorson H, editors. Lymphoedema. Cham: Springer; 2015. p. 33–44.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    DiSipio T, Rye S, Newman B, Hayes S. Incidence of unilateral arm lymphoedema after breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(6):500–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Armer JM, Stewart BR. A comparison of four diagnostic criteria for lymphoedema in a post-breast cancer population. Lymphat Res Biol. 2005;3(4):208–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brorson H, Hoijer P. Standardised measurements used to order compression garments can be used to calculate arm volumes to evaluate lymphoedema treatment. J Plast Surg Hand Surg. 2012;46(6):410–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tassenoy A, De Strijcker D, Adriaenssens N, Lievens P. The use of noninvasive imaging techniques in the assessment of secondary lymphoedema tissue changes as part of staging lymphoedema. Lymphat Res Biol. 2016;14(3):127–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cornish BH, Ward LC, Thomas BJ, Bunce IH. Quantification of lymphoedema using multi-frequency bioimpedance. Appl Radiat Isot. 1998;49(5–6):651–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Burnier P, Niddam J, Bosc R, Hersant B, Meningaud JP. Indocyanine green applications in plastic surgery: a review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70(6):814–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Andrade M. Clinical diagnosis: general overview. In: Lee B, Bergan J, Rockson S, editors. Lymphoedema. Cham: Springer; 2011. p. 83–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bull RH, Gane JN, Evans JE, Joseph AE, Mortimer PS. Abnormal lymph drainage in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28(4):585–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Guex JJ. Physiopathology of post-thrombotic syndrome. Update 1994. J Mal Vasc. 1994;19(1):12–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peled AW, Slavin SA, Brorson H. Long-term outcome after surgical treatment of lipedema. Ann Plast Surg. 2012;68(3):303–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maclellan RA, Zurakowski D, Grant FD, Greene AK. Massive localized lymphoedema: a case-control study. J Am Coll Surg. 2017;224(2):212–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    International Society of Lymphology. The diagnosis and treatment of peripheral lymphoedema. Consensus document of the International Society of Lymphology. Lymphology. 2003;36(2):84–91.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Macmillan Lymphoedema Academy. Teaching material. 2014. www.macmillanlymphoedema-academy.org.uk.
  33. 33.
    Partsch H, Moffatt C. An overview of the science behind compression bandaging for lymphoedema and chronic oedema. In: International Lymphoedema Framework (2012) Compression therapy: a position document on compression bandaging. Best practice for the Management of Lymphoedema. 2nd ed. Saint-Étienne: Imprimerie Reboul; 2012. p. 12–23.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Haid H, Lofferer O, Mostbeck A, Partsch H. Lymph kinetics in the postthrombotic syndrome under compression bandages. [German]. Med Klin. 1968;63(19):754–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bräutigam P, Földi E, Schaiper I, Krause T, Vanscheidt W, Moser E. Analysis of lymphatic drainage in various forms of leg edema using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphology. 1998;31(2):43–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    International Lymphoedema Framework. Compression therapy: a position document on compression bandaging. Best practice for the management of lymphoedema. 2nd ed. Saint-Étienne: Imprimerie Reboul; 2012. www.lympho.org/mod_turbolead/upload//file/Resources/Compression%20bandaging%20 -%20final.pdf. Accessed 23 Dec 2015Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kasseroller RG, Brenner E. A prospective randomised study of alginate-drenched low stretch bandages as an alternative to conventional lymphologic compression bandaging. Support Care Cancer. 2010;18(3):343–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sitzia J, Sobrido L. Measurement of health-related quality of life of patients receiving conservative treatment for limb lymphoedema using the Nottingham Health Profile. Qual Life Res. 1997;6(5):373–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Badger CM, Peacock JL, Mortimer PS. A randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial comparing multilayer bandaging followed by hosiery versus hosiery alone in the treatment of patients with lymphoedema of the limb. Cancer. 2000;88(12):2832–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    McNeely ML, Magee DJ, Lees AW, et al. The addition of manual lymph drainage to compression therapy for breast cancer related lymphoedema: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004;86(2):95–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Johansson K, Albertsson M, Ingvar C, Ekdahl C. Effects of compression bandaging with or without manual lymph drainage treatment in patients with postoperative arm lymphoedema. Lymphology. 1999;32(3):103–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Badger CM. A study of the efficacy of multi-layer bandaging and elastic hosiery in the treatment of lymphoedema and their effects on the swollen limb, PhD Thesis. London: Institute of Cancer Research; 1997.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Partsch H, Clark M, Bassez S, et al. Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: a consensus statement. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32(2):224–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Melhuish JM, Clark M, Williams R, Harding KG. The physics of sub-bandage pressure measurement. J Wound Care. 2000;9(7):308–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Partsch H. Understanding the pathophysiological effects of compression. In: EWMA position document. Understanding compression therapy. London: MEP Ltd; 2003. p. 2–5.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moffatt C, Morgan P, Doherty D. The lymphoedema framework: a consensus on lymphoedema bandaging. In: EWMA focus document: Lymphoedema bandaging in practice. London: MEP Ltd; 2005. p. 5–9.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Földi M, Földi E, Kubik S, editors. Textbook of lymphology for physicians and lymphoedema therapists. San Francisco, CA: Urban & Fischer; 2003.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Marston W, Vowden K. Compression therapy: a guide to safe practice. In: EWMA position document. Understanding compression therapy. London: MEP Ltd; 2003. p. 11–7.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Macdonald JM, Sims N, Mayrovitz HN. Lymphoedema, lipedema, and the open wound: the role of compression therapy. Surg Clin North Am. 2003;83(3):639–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thomas S, Nelson A. Types of compression bandage. J Wound Care. 1998;7(8 Suppl):5–10.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Clark M. Compression bandages: principles and definitions. In: EWMA position document. Understanding compression therapy. London: MEP Ltd; 2003. p. 5–7.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Leduc O, Leduc A, Bourgeois P, Belgrado JP. The physical treatment of upper limb edema. Cancer. 1998;83(12 Suppl American):2835–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Larsen AM, Futtrup I. Watch the pressure – it drops! EWMA J. 2004;4(2):8–12.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Földi E, Jünger M, Partsch H. Science of lymphoedema bandaging. In: EWMA focus document. Lymphoedema bandaging in practice. London: MEP Ltd; 2005. p. 2–4.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Quéré I, Sneddon M. Adapting compression bandaging for different patient groups. In: International Lymphoedema framework compression therapy: a position document on compression bandaging. Best practice for the management of lymphoedema. 2nd ed. Saint-Étienne: Imprimerie Reboul; 2012. p. 32–48.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Partsch H. Assessing the effectiveness of multilayer inelastic bandaging. J Lymphoedema. 2007;2(2):55–61.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hopkins A. Compression therapy for lymphoedema. Pract Nurs. 2008;19(10):496–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Macmillan Lymphoedema Academy. Teaching material. 2013. www.macmillanlymphoedema-academy.org.uk.
  59. 59.
    Franks PJ, Moffatt CJ, Murray S, Reddick M, Tilley A, Schreiber A. Evaluation of the performance of a new compression system in patients with lymphoedema. Int Wound J. 2013;10(2):203–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Johansson K. Evidence for the use of upper body compression garments in patients with lymphoedema. In: Template for practice: compression hosiery in upper body lymphoedema. Aberdeen: HealthComm UK Ltd; 2009. p. 16–20.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lymphoedema Framework. Best practice for the management of lymphoedema: international consensus. London: Medical Education Partnership; 2006.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Partsch H, Jünger M. Evidence for the use of compression hosiery in Lymphoedema. In: Lymphoedema framework. Template for practice: compression hosiery in lymphoedema. London: Medical Education Partnership Ltd.; 2006. p. 5–9.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hobday A, Wigg J. FarrowWrap: innovative and creative patient treatment for lymphoedema. Br J Community Nurs. 2013;18(10 Suppl 6):S24.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Humen Davey S, Mayrovitz HN. Measuring sub-bandage static and dynamic compression pressures. Symposium, Advanced Wound Care and Medical Forum, San Antonio, April 30–May 3, 2006. 2006. http://clinsoft.org/drmayrovitz/POSTERS-HNM/Poster_SAWC_Pressures.pdf. Accessed 11 Feb 2016.
  65. 65.
    Linnitt N. Compression hosiery versus bandaging for chronic oedema. Nursing & Residential Care. 2011;13(4):183–5.  https://doi.org/10.12968/nrec.2011.13.4.183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    WHO. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis. 1997. www.who.int/lymphatic_filariasis/disease/en/.
  67. 67.
    World health Assembly. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem. Resolution WHA 50.29. 1997. www.paho.org/English/AD/DPC/CD/psit-lf-wha50-29-eng.pdf.
  68. 68.
    Narahari SR, Ryan TJ, Mahadevan PE, et al. Integrated management of filarial lymphedema for rural communities. Lymphology. 2007;40:3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Foldi M, Foldi E, Kubic S. Textbook of lymphology. Munich: Elsevier; 2007.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Moffatt C. Compression therapy in practice. Trowbridge: Wounds UK; 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. K. Shukla
    • 1
  • Vivek Srivastava
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of General SurgeryInstitute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations