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Food Allergies, Food Intolerances, and Carbohydrate Malabsorption

  • John Leung
  • Apaar Dadlani
  • Sheila Eileen CroweEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Up to 20% of the general population and more than half of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome report recurrent adverse reactions to specific food(s) or food group(s). Most of these reactions are not driven by the immune system and they are known as food intolerances. These nonimmunological adverse food reactions can result from a variety of disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), metabolic diseases, toxin-mediated reactions, gastrointestinal infections, deficiency of digestive enzymes, and disorders resulting from many anatomic and neurologic abnormalities. In contrast, food allergy is an abnormal immunological reaction to food. It is broadly categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IgE-mediated, and mixed IgE/non-IgE-mediated. In this chapter, a case study of wheat-related disorders is presented in order to demonstrate the key differences between food allergy and intolerance and to discuss the approach to their diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords

Food intolerance Food allergy Carbohydrate malabsorption Fructan intolerance Irritable bowel syndrome 

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Essential Reading

  1. Sicherer SH, Sampson HA. Food allergy: a review and update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and management. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(1):41–58. This review article comprises of recent updates in the understanding of food allergy.Google Scholar
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  3. Halmos EP, Power VA, Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR, Muir JG. A diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2014;146(1):67–75. e5. This article reports the results of the first multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blind trial to show the efficacy of low FODMAP diet in the treatment IBS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Leung
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Apaar Dadlani
    • 4
  • Sheila Eileen Crowe
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Food Related Diseases at Tufts Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Food Allergy Center at Floating Hospital of Tufts Medical CenterBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Gastroenterology and Department of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Tufts Medical CenterBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Gastroenterology, Tufts Medical CenterBostonUSA
  5. 5.Division of Gastroenterology, Department of MedicineUniversity of California in San DiegoLa JollaUSA

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