Advertisement

Towards a Cognitively-Mediated Conceptualisation of the Cooperative Principle: An Introduction to the Maxim of Diplomacy

  • Mostafa Morady MoghaddamEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives in Pragmatics, Philosophy & Psychology book series (PEPRPHPS, volume 20)

Abstract

This chapter draws on Erving Goffman’s concept of dramaturgy to account for the ‘looseness’ in Grice’s principle of cooperation which has led to various interpretations made by the bulk of research done on this issue. In this work, I argue that the previous expansions of the Cooperative Principle (CP), though valuable to deal with subtle aspects of interaction, were not successful in delivering a comprehensive account of the CP as a conversation principle. Focusing on the rich existing literature and the shortcomings in each of the models proposed with regard to the expansion or modification of the CP, this study introduces a cognitively-mediated view of the CP which passes through Goffman’s theory of dramaturgy. Based on the idea of dramaturgy, individuals’ expectations are formed during the interaction according to their appraisals and judgements of the situation. This study argues for a more cogent estimate of the CP by adding, as a mediator, the Maxim of Diplomacy (MOD) to the conversational maxims. The Maxim of Diplomacy bestows a more comprehensive view of interaction by resorting to a set of cognitively-mediated communication strategies to assist the interlocutors in encoding and decoding the intended meaning by way of their appraisals of the events. The study reveals that through the CP, individuals not only mix socially with others but also actively treat each other and the context cognitively for the best cooperative results.

Keywords

Appraisal Cooperative principle Dramaturgy Goffman Grice Maxim of diplomacy 

References

  1. Ansarin, A. A., & Morady Moghaddam, M. (2016). Complimenting functions by native English speakers and Iranian EFL learners: A divergence or convergence? Applied Research on English Language, 5(1), 51–76.Google Scholar
  2. Attardo, S. (1993). Violation of conversational maxims and cooperation: The case of jokes. Journal of Pragmatics, 19(6), 537–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Attardo, S. (1997). Locutionary and perlocutionary cooperation: The perlocutionary cooperative principle. Journal of Pragmatics, 27, 753–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bousfield, D. (2008). Impoliteness in interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Capone, A. (2010). On the social practice of indirect reports (further advances in the theory of pragmemes). Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 377–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Capone, A. (2016a). On the (complicated) relationship between direct and indirect reports. In A. Capone, F. Kiefer, & F. Lo Piparo (Eds.), Indirect reports and pragmatics (pp. 55–76). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Capone, A. (2016b). The pragmatics of indirect reports: Socio-philosophical considerations. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Cappella, J. N. (1995). An evolutionary psychology of Gricean cooperation. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 14(1–2), 167–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheng, D. (2011). New insights on compliment responses: A comparison between native English speakers and Chinese L2 speakers. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(8), 2204–2214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Czopp, A. M. (2008). When is a compliment not a compliment? Evaluating expressions of positive stereotypes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(2), 413–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dynel, M. (2009). Where cooperation meets politeness: Revisiting politeness models in view of the Gricean framework. Brno Studies in English, 35(1), 23–43.Google Scholar
  12. Dynel, M. (2013). Being cooperatively (im)polite: Grice’s model in the context of (im)politeness theories. Research Trends in Intercultural Pragmatics, 16, 55–83.Google Scholar
  13. Davies, B. L. (2007). Grice’s cooperative principle: Meaning and rationality. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(12), 2308–2331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eisterhold, J., Attardo, S., & Boxer, D. D. (2006). Reactions to irony in discourse: Evidence for the least disruption principle. Journal of Pragmatics, 38(8), 1239–1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Emike, J. A., Adeyinka, O. A., & Lyiola, O. J. (2015). A critique of H. P. Grice’s pragmatic theory. American Research Journal of English and Literature, 1(5), 24–34.Google Scholar
  16. Fairclough, N. (2010). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language (2nd ed.). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  17. Ghita, A. (2001). Negotiation of irony in dialogue. In E. Weigand & M. Dascal (Eds.), Negotiation and power in dialogic interaction (pp. 139–148). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goffman, E. (1956). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  19. Grice, H. P. (1957). Meaning. The Philosophical Review, 663, 377–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grice, H. P. (1961). Symposium: The causal theory of perception. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 35, 121–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In P. Cole & J. L. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and semantics (pp. 41–58). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Grice, H. P. (1989). Studies in the way of words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Haugh, M. (2007). The co-constitution of politeness implicature in conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 84–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hadi, A. (2013). A critical appraisal of Grice’s Cooperative Principle. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 3(1), 69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ikaria-Maina, N. (2015). Business discourse: Analyses of adherence of Cooperative Principle in sales personnel-customer interaction. International Journal of Science and Research, 4(9), 614–618.Google Scholar
  26. Kallia, A. (2004). Linguistic politeness: The implicature approach. Multilingua, 23, 145–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keenan, E. O. (1976). The universality of conversational postulates. Language in Society, 5(1), 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keshvardoost, A. (2014). A comparative study on Grice’s cooperative principles in political and sport news in American media. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 6(1), 481–491.Google Scholar
  29. Ladegaard, H. J. (2009). Pragmatic cooperation revisited: Resistance and non-cooperation as a discursive strategy in asymmetrical discourses. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(4), 649–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lantolf, J. P. (2000). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Leech, G. N. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  32. Lindblom, K. (2001a). Cooperating with Grice: A cross-disciplinary metaperspective on uses of Grice’s cooperative principle. Journal of Pragmatics, 33(10), 1601–1623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lindblom, K. (2001b). What exactly is cooperative in Grice’s cooperative principle? A sophisticated rearticulation of the CP. RASK: International Journal of Language and Communication, 14, 49–73.Google Scholar
  34. Lumsden, D. (2008). Kinds of conversational cooperation. Journal of Pragmatics, 40(11), 1896–1908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mey, J. L. (2001). Pragmatics: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  36. Mooney, A. (2004). Co-operation, violations and making sense. Journal of Pragmatics, 36(5), 899–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morady Moghaddam, M. (2017). Politeness at the extremes: Iranian women’s insincere responses to compliments. Language and Dialogue, 7(3), 414–432.Google Scholar
  38. Morady Moghaddam, M. (2018). [Book Review] The pragmatics of indirect reports: Sociophilosophical considerations. Lingua, 204, 134–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Murray, N. (2010). Pragmatics, awareness raising, and the Cooperative Principle. ELT Journal, 64(3), 293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Muslah, A. F. (2015). Violating and flouting the Cooperative Principle in some selected short stories. Journal of Babylon University, 23(1), 62–71.Google Scholar
  41. Neale, S. (1992). Paul Grice and the philosophy of language. Linguistics and Philosophy, 15, 509–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Parkinson, B. (2001). Putting appraisal in context. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion (pp. 173–187). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Pfister, J. (2010). Is there a need for a maxim of politeness? Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 1266–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pratt, M. L. (1981). The ideology of speech act theory. Centrum, 1(1), 5–18.Google Scholar
  45. Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. W. (2002). Dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics (3rd ed.). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  46. Roseman, I. J., & Smith, C. A. (2001). Appraisal theory: Overview, assumptions, varieties, controversies. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion (pp. 3–20). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Sarangi, S. K., & Slembrouck, S. (1992). Non-cooperation in communication: A reassessment of Gricean pragmatics. Journal of Pragmatics, 17(2), 117–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sobhani, A., & Saghebi, A. (2014). The violation of Cooperative Principles and four maxims in Iranian psychological consultation. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 4(1), 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tan, X., Chunyang, W., & Liu, P. (2013). Application of Cooperative Principle in college English listening comprehension. English Linguistics Research, 2(2), 27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Terkourafi, M. (2007). Toward a universal notion of face for a universal notion of cooperation. In I. Kecskes & H. Laurence (Eds.), Explorations in pragmatics: linguistic, cognitive and intercultural aspects, MSP1 (pp. 313–344). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  51. Wardhaugh, R. (2006). An introduction to sociolinguistics (5th ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  52. Weigand, E. (2010). Dialogue: The Mixed Game. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EnglishShahrood University of TechnologyShahroodIran

Personalised recommendations