Executive Functioning, Visuo-Spatial and Inter-Personal Skill Preservation in Alzheimer’s and Mild Cognitive Impairment
Most research, clinical and behavioral, has focused on cognitive degeneration, disease progression and related difficulties in Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, most therapeutic approaches have as their goal the improvement of cognitive capacities in general. This paper discusses the case of two patients under intra-nasal insulin therapy (cf. Craft S, Baker L, Montine T, Minoshima S, Watson S, Claxton A, Arbuckle M, Callaghan M, Tsai E, Plymate S, Green P, Leverenz J, Cross D, Gerton B, Arch Neurol 69(1):29–38, 2012; de la Monte, 2012; Freiherr J, Hallschmid M, Frey II WH, Brünner YF, Chapman CD, Hölscher C, Craft S, De Felice FG, Benedict C, CNS Drugs 27:505–514, 2013; Schatz, González-Rivera, Pragmat Cognit 23(2), 2016; a.o.): an 86 year old male with moderate Alzheimer’s disease and a 67 year old male with early on-set Alzheimer’s who have both shown significant improvement of certain cognitive functions, mostly related to executive functioning and visuo-spatial skills while the elder patient exhibited severe deterioration in other capacities related to episodic memory. Selective cognitive improvement, even if partial, can have a significant impact on the quality of life of a patient and the ability to interact with others in a functional way; ameliorating some of the most devastating interactional and behavioral aspects of the disease.
- Abdelal, Ahmed M. 2015. Role of Executive Functions in Pragmatic Performance: Implications for Intervention. ASHA Annual National Convention Philadelphia, BridgeWater State University.Google Scholar
- Abimbola, A Akintola, van Opstal, Anna M., Westendorp, Rudi G., Iris Postmus, Jeroen van der Grond & Diana van Heemst. 2017. Effect of intranasally administered insulin on cerebral blood flow and perfusion: a randomized experiment in young and older adults. Aging 9(3):790–802.Google Scholar
- Alexander, Michael P. 2004. Paper presented at Cognitive Neurology Conference, Harvard Medical School.Google Scholar
- Alzheimer’s Association. 2016. 2016 Alzheimer’s Disease: Facts and Figures. Retrieved from: https://www.alz.org/.
- Alzheimer’s Foundation of America. 2017. About Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia. Retrieved from: https://alzfdn.org/caregiving-resources/about-alzheimers-disease-and-dementia/
- Bukar Maina, Mahmoud, Al-Hilaly, Youssra K., Serpell, Louise C. 2016. Nuclear Tau and Its Potential Role in Alzheimer’s Disease. Biomolecules 6(1).Google Scholar
- Clark, Camilia N. & Jason D. Warren. 2014. The Neurology of Humor. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation 13(7): 9–11.Google Scholar
- Claxton, Amy, Baker, Laura D., Hanson, Trittschuh, Emily,Angela Cholerton, Brenna Morgan, Amy Callaghan, Maureen Arbuckle, Matthew Colin Behl, Colin & Suzanne Craft. Therapeutic Effects of Intranasal Insulin and Insulin Analogues on Cognition and MRI Measures in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer’s and Dementia 2014, 10(4):1–26Google Scholar
- Craft, Suzanne. HBO, The Connection The Connection between Insulin and Alzheimer’s. 2009.http://www.hbo.com/alzheimers/the-supplementary-series.html
- Craft, Suzanne, Claxton, Amy, Hanson, Angela, Cholerton, Brenna, Neth, Bryan, Trittschuh, Emily & Baker, Laura. Therapeutic Effects of Intranasal Insulin and Insulin Analogues on Cognition and MRI Measures in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer’s and Dementia, 2014,10(4):1–26.Google Scholar
- Craft, Suzanne, Baker, Laura, Montine, Thomas, Minoshima, Satoshi, Watson, Stennis, Claxton, Amy, Arbuckle, Matthew, Callaghan, Maureen, Tsai, Elaine, Plymate, Stephen, Green, Pattie, Leverenz, James, Cross, Donna & Gerton, Brooke. Intranasal Insulin Therapy for Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.Archives of Neurology,2012;Jan; 69(1):29–38.Google Scholar
- Davis, Boyd, Maclagan, Margeret& Cook, Julie.‘Aw: So How’s Your Day Going’? Ways that Persons with Dementia Keep their Conversational Partners Involvedin Pragmatics in Dementia Discourse, edited by Boyd H. Davis and Jacqueline Guendouzi, Cambridge: Cambridge University Scholars, 2013, pp. 83–116.Google Scholar
- De Jager CA, Hogervorst E, Combrinck M, Budge MM. Sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological tests for mild cognitive impairment, vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Psychol Med,2003 Aug; 33(6):1039–50.Google Scholar
- de Vugt, ME, Stevens, F & Aalten P, Lousberg R, Jaspers N, Winkens I, Jolles, J and Verhey, FR. Behavioral disturbances in dementia patients and quality of the marital relationship. Int J Geriatric Psychiatry,2003; Feb;18(2):149–54.
- Di Santo SG, Prinelli F, Adorni F, Caltagirone C, Musicco M. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine in relation to severity of Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimer’s Disease, 2013;35(2):349–61.Google Scholar
- Freiherr, Jessica, Hallschmid, Manfred, Frey II, William H., Brünner, Yvonne F., Chapman, Colin D., Hölscher, Christian, Craft, Suzanne, De Felice, Fernanda G. & Benedict, Christian. 2013. Intranasal Insulin as a Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review of Basic Research and Clinical Evidence. CNS Drugs 27: 505–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gutiérrez, Javier & Schatz, Sara. 2016. Cognitive Impairment and Pragmatics. SpringerPlus.Google Scholar
- Hawkins, David B& Graff-Radford, Neill R. The Ability to Pun May be Retained in Alzheimer Disease. Neurocase,2007(3):50–54.Google Scholar
- Mota-Quental, Natalia B. Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi & Bueno, Francisco Orlando Amodeo. Visuospatial Function in Early Alzheimer’s Disease—The Use of the Visual Object and Space Perception (VOSP) Battery. PLOS 2013, July 16; 0068398.Google Scholar
- Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong, Corrado Priamiand Caberlotto, Laura.Novel drug target identification for the treatment of dementia using multi-relational association mining. Scientific Reports, 2015(5),11104.Google Scholar
- Radanovic, Marcia, Azambuja, Mariana, Mansur, Leticia Lessa, Claudia Selitto Porto and Milberto Scaff.Thalamus an Language: Interface with attention, memory and executive functions, Arq Neuropsychiatry, 2003,61(1):34–42.Google Scholar
- Reger MA, Watson GS, Green PS, Baker LD, Cholerton B, Fishel MA, Plymate SR, Cherrier MM, Schellenberg GD, Frey WH 2nd, Craft S. Intranasal insulin administration dose-dependently modulates verbal memory and plasma amyloid-beta in memory-impaired older adults.J Alzheimer’s Disease, 2008; Apr;13(3):323–31.Google Scholar
- Schilling, TM, Ferreira de Sa DS, Westernhausen, R, Strelzyk, F., Larra, MF, Hallaschmid, M, Savaskan, E., Oitzl, MS, Busch, HP, Naumann, E and Schachinger, H.Intranasal insulin increases regional cerebral blood flow in the insular cortex in men independently of cortisol manipulation, Human Brain Mapping, 2014, 35:1944–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Silagi, Marcela Lima, Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira & Ortiz, Karin Zazo. Naming ability in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: what changes occur with the evolution of the disease? Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2015,70(6); June.
- SNIF. The Study of Nasal Insulin in the Fight Against Forgetfulness. 2017.www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier--NCT01767909.
- Tampi, Rajesh R. et. al. 2015. Mild cognitive impairment: A comprehensive review. Healthy Aging Research.Google Scholar
- Tombaugh, T.N. 2004. Trail Making test A and B: Normative Data Stratified by Age and Education. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology,2004,19(2):203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Winocur, Gordon. Cognitive Rehabilitation in Old Age: The Rotman Initiative, in Mind and the Frontal Lobes: Cognition, Behavior, and Brain Imaging. Publisher Oxford University Press, Editors Brian Levine, Fergus I.M. Craik, 2012, pp. 164–182.Google Scholar
- Wray, Alison. 2014. Formulaic language and threat: the challenge of empathy and compassion in Alzheimer’s disease interaction in Dialogue and Dementia: Cognitive and Communicative Resources for Engagement, Publisher: Psychology Press, Editors: Robert Schrauf, Nicole Mueller, pp.263–286.Google Scholar