Laparoscopic Decortication for Renal Cysts in Children
The kidney is one of the commonest organs for cyst occurrence . Causes are listed in Box 57.1 . Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common renal cystic disease in the United States . On the other hand, simple renal cysts are comparatively rare in children and adolescents up to 18 years of age. Incidence ranges from 0.1 to 0.45% with a mean of 0.22% without sex predilection . The incidence, however, rises with age reaching 20% and 50% at 40 and 60 years of age, respectively, with apparent male preponderance . Despite originating within the nephron, simple renal cysts lose communication later and become excluded. They usually range from 1 to 10 cm in size, the majority being less than 2 cm . They are usually oval or rounded, solitary or multiple, and unilateral or bilateral. Most cysts are unilocular and cortical in location and, rarely, medullary. They look glistening blue usually distorting renal contour. They are lined by a single layer of flattened or cuboidal epithelium and filled with a clear serous fluid. However, some may become septated and fibrosed or calcified from previous hemorrhage or infection .
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