Advertisement

Autonomous Surface Vessels in Ports: Applications, Technologies and Port Infrastructures

  • Abhilash Devaraju
  • Linying ChenEmail author
  • Rudy R. Negenborn
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11184)

Abstract

Autonomous Surface Vessels (ASVs) have various applications in the maritime sector. However, considerable challenges need to be met before integrating the applications in the current environment. Moreover, infrastructures in ports and waterways need to be upgraded to satisfy the requirements for ASV applications. To have an insight into the potential of ASVs in ports, we analyze the applications of autonomous vessels and the impacts that these applications have on port infrastructures. Future scenarios of the application of ASVs in ports are determined based on the analysis of the following three aspects: ASV applications, ASV technology development, and port infrastructure development. To indicate the development of ASV technology and port infrastructures, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is employed. Eleven scenarios of ASVs in ports have been identified based on the analysis.

Keywords

Autonomous surface vessel Port infrastructures Technical scenarios 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research is partially supported by SmartPort project ‘TET-SP: Autonomous shipping in the Port of Rotterdam’ (2017) and the China Scholarship Council under Grant 201406950041.

References

  1. 1.
    Alves, J.: Vehicle and mission control of the DELFIM autonomous surface craft. In: 14th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anton Tvete, H., Engelhardsten, O.: DNV GL’s research within autonomous systems: Nor-shipping workshop – Professional insight on unmanned ships. http://www.unmannedship.org/munin/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/MUNIN-Workshop-1-2-DNVGL-DNV-GL%E2%80%99s-research-within-Autonomous-Systems.pdf. Accessed 10 Sept 2017
  3. 3.
    Barton, T.: The DARPA ACTUV program. In: Presentation, Autonomous Ship Technology Symposium (2016)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bates Ramirez, V.: Singularity Hub: The World’s First Autonomous Ship Will Set Sail in 2018. https://singularityhub.com/2017/07/30/the-worlds-first-autonomous-ship-will-set-sail-in-2018/. Accessed 18 Sept 2017
  5. 5.
    Buch, T., Kurowski, M.: MESSIN – An autonomously operating unmanned surface vehicle (2013). https://www.innomar.com/wssa2013/wssa2013-P03-Buch.pdf. Accessed 09 Sept 2017
  6. 6.
    Burmeister, H.C.: Autonomous navigation results from the MUNIN testbed. In: Presentation, Autonomous Ship Technology Symposium (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    Chopra, K.: Marine Insight: What are Tug Boats? (2015) http://www.marineinsight.com/types-of-ships/what-are-tug-boats/ Accessed 12 Sept 2017
  9. 9.
    DARPA: ACTUV Unmanned Vessel Helps TALONS Take Flight in Successful Joint Test (2016). https://www.darpa.mil/news-events/2016-10-24. Accessed 15 Sept 2017
  10. 10.
    DNV GL: The ReVolt, a new inspirational ship concept. https://www.dnvgl.com/technology-innovation/revolt/index.html. Accessed 09 Sept 2017
  11. 11.
    FleetBroadband - Inmarsat. https://www.inmarsat.com/service/fleetbroadband. Accessed 26 Oct 2017
  12. 12.
    Fleet-class Common Unmanned Surface Vessel (CUSV). http://www.textronsystems.com/sites/default/files/resourcefiles/TS_US_CUSV_Datasheet.pdf. Accessed 26 Oct 2017
  13. 13.
    Jha, S.K.: Emerging technologies: impact on shipbuilding. Marit. Affairs J. Natl. Marit. Found. India 12(2), 78–88 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jokioinen, E.: Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications (AAWA) initiative. Presentation, Autonomous Ship Technology Symposium (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jokioinen, E. Remote and Autonomous Ships – The next steps. http://www.rolls-royce.com/~/media/Files/R/Rolls-Royce/documents/customers/marine/ship-intel/aawa-whitepaper-210616.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2017
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Levander, O.: The journey towards unmanned ships in the ship intelligence era. In: Presentation, Autonomous Ship Technology Symposium (2016)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, S.: Coordinated Planning of Inland Vessels for Large Seaports. TU Delft, The Netherlands (2016)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Llyod’s Register.: Cyber-enabled ships: ShipRight procedure – autonomous ships, 1st edn. (2016)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mayflower Autonomous Ship. http://www.mayflowerautoship.com/. Accessed 16 Sept 2017
  21. 21.
    MoorMaster: Automated Mooring Systems. http://www.cavotec.com/uploads/2017/05/31/flyercavotec-moormaster11042017ld.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2017
  22. 22.
    Mu, L., Prinz, A.: Delay-oriented data traffic migration in maritime mobile communication environments. In: Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN), pp. 417–422. Phuket (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Munin’s Objectives and Impact. http://www.unmanned-ship.org/munin/about/munins-objectives/. Accessed 09 Sept 2017
  24. 24.
    Naval-technology.com: Fleet-class Common Unmanned Surface Vessel (CUSV), USA. http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/fleet-class-common-unmanned-surface-vessel-cusv/. Accessed 15 Sept 2017
  25. 25.
    Opensea.pro: Dry bulk market – Shall we trade short sea or deep sea. from https://opensea.pro/blog/short-sea-vs-deep-sea. Accessed 05 Oct 2017
  26. 26.
    Perkovic, M., Gucma, M., Luin, B., Gucma, L., Brcko, T.: Accommodating larger container vessels using an integrated laser system for approach and berthing. Microprocess. Microsyst. 52, 106–116 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Piris, A.O., Díaz-Ruiz-Navamuel, E., Pérez-Labajos, C.A., Chaveli, J.O.: Reduction of CO2 emissions with automatic mooring systems. The case of the port of Santander. Atmospheric. Pollut. Res. 9(1), 76–83 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Port Technology: Asia Enters Fully Automated Terminal Era. https://www.porttechnology.org/news/asia_enters_fully_automated_terminal_era. Accessed 05 Oct 2017
  29. 29.
    Robert Allan Ltd.: Revolutionary RAmora brings Tele-operated capability to ship handling. http://ral.ca/2015/09/18/revolutionary-ramora-brings-tele-operated-capability-to-ship-handling/. Accessed 20 Sept 2017
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
    Rolls-Royce: Rolls-Royce reveals future shore control centre. https://www.rolls-royce.com/media/our-stories/press-releases/2016/pr-2016-03-22-rr-reveals-future-shore-control-centre.aspx. Accessed 15 July 2018
  32. 32.
    Schiaretti, M., Chen, L., Negenborn, R.R.: Survey on autonomous surface vessels: Part II - categorization of 60 prototypes and future applications. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Logistics (ICCL 2017), Southampton, UK, pp. 234–252 (2017)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mayflower Autonomous Research Ship (MARS), UK. http://www.ship-technology.com/projects/mayflower-autonomous-research-ship-mars/. Accessed 16 Sept 2017
  34. 34.
    NASA: Technology Readiness Level (2012). https://www.nasa.gov/directorates/heo/scan/engineering/technology/txt_accordion1.html. Accessed 08 Sept 2017
  35. 35.
    Stapleton, R.: Revolutionary RAmora brings tele-operated capability to ship-handling tugs. In: Presentation, Autonomous Ship Technology Symposium (2016)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    The Engineer: Rolls-Royce and Svitzer demonstrate world’s first remotely operated commercial vessel (2017). https://www.theengineer.co.uk/rolls-royce-and-svitzer-demonstrate-worlds-first-remotely-operated-commercial-vessel/. Accessed 20 Sept 2017
  37. 37.
    The MUNIN Consortium. http://www.unmanned-ship.org/munin/partner/. Accessed 09 Sept 2017
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    Wingrove, M.: Tug Technology & Business: Svitzer and Rolls-Royce demonstrate remote control tug operations. http://www.tugtechnologyandbusiness.com/news/view,svitzer-and-rollsroyce-demonstrate-remote-control-tug-operations_48281.htm. Accessed 20 Sept 2017
  40. 40.
    Wong, K.: Jane’s 360: Imdex 2017: ST Electronics Venus 16 USV development enters final lap. http://www.janes.com/article/70489/imdex-2017-st-electronics-venus-16-usv-development-enters-the-final-lap. Accessed 11 Sept 2017
  41. 41.
    Wróbel, K., Montewka, J., Kujala, P.: Towards the assessment of potential impact of unmanned vessels on maritime transportation safety. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Safety 165, 155–169 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yue Kwok Wai, A.: ST Electronics: Unmanned Surface Vehicle (2016). http://www.mpa.gov.sg/web/wcm/connect/www/01146343-81f0-4dec-8ccd-ef33c82e2240/Presentation+-+Andrew+Yue.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 19 Sept 2017
  43. 43.
    Zhou, M., Harada, H.: Cognitive maritime wireless mesh/ad hoc networks. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 35(2), 518–526 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhilash Devaraju
    • 1
  • Linying Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rudy R. Negenborn
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Maritime and Transport TechnologyDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations