Advertisement

Lung Transplantation

  • Andrew Roscoe
  • Rebecca Y. Klinger
Chapter

Abstract

Preoperative evaluation of the lung transplant recipient allows for optimal planning of intraoperative ventilation, hemodynamic support, and the need for extracorporeal support. Careful induction of anesthesia is required to avoid acute right ventricular failure and cardiovascular collapse, and transesophageal echocardiography is invaluable in the diagnosis of hemodynamic instability. The increasing perioperative use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation bestows new challenges on the anesthesiologist, in terms of hemodynamic, anticoagulation, and fluid management. Early postoperative extubation is feasible, and reduction in early complications confers a long-term survival benefit.

Keywords

Donor organ End-stage lung disease Extracorporeal support Lung transplantation Right ventricular failure 

Supplementary material

References

  1. 1.
    Yusen RD, Edwards LB, Dipchand AI, et al. The registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: thirty-third adult lung and heart-lung transplant report-2016. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35:1170–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hardy JD, Webb WR, Dalton ML Jr. Lung homotransplantations in man: report of the initial case. JAMA. 1963;18:1065–74.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Toronto Lung Transplant Group. Unilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 1986;314:1140–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liao WC, Hwang SL, Ko WJ, et al. Analysis of heart donation for cardiac transplantation at the National Taiwan university Hospital: fifteen-year cases review. Transplant Proc. 2004;36:2365–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cameron EJ, Bellini A, Damian MS, et al. Confirmation of brainstem death. Pract Neurol. 2016;16:129–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith M. Physiologic changes during brain stem death – lessons for management of the organ donor. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23:S217–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dictus C, Vienenkoetter B, Esmaeilzadeh M, et al. Critical care management of potential organ donors: our current standard. Clin Transpl. 2009;23:2–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Faropoulos K, Apostolakis E. Brain death and its influence on the lungs of the donor: how is it prevented? Transplant Proc. 2009;41:4114–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shutter L. Pathophysiology of brain death: what does the brain do and what is lost in brain death? J Crit Care. 2014;29:683–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shemie SD, Ross H, Pagliarello J, et al. Organ donor management in Canada: recommendations of the forum on medical management to optimize donor organ potential. CMAJ. 2006;174:S13–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grissom TE, Richards JE, Herr DL. Critical care management of the potential organ donor. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2017;55:18–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Angel LF, Levine DJ, Restrepo MI, et al. Impact of a lung transplantation donor-management protocol on lung donation and recipient outcomes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:710–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mascia L, Pasero D, Slutsky AS, et al. Effect of a lung protective strategy for organ donors on eligibility and availability of lungs for transplantation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;304:2620–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Novitzky D, Mi Z, Videla LA, et al. Hormone resuscitation therapy for brain-dead donors: is insulin beneficial or detrimental? Clin Transpl. 2016;30:754–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anderson TA, Bekker P, Vagefi PA. Anesthetic considerations in organ procurement surgery: a narrative review. Can J Anaesth. 2015;62:529–39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oto T, Griffiths AP, Rosenfeldt F, et al. Early outcomes comparing Perfadex, Euro-Collins and Papworth solutions in lung transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;82:1842–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Latchana N, Peck JR, Whitson B, et al. Preservation solutions for cardiac and pulmonary donor grafts: a review of the current literature. J Thorac Dis. 2014;6:1143–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Raemdonck DE, Jannis NC, Rega FR, et al. Extended preservation of ischemic pulmonary graft function by postmortem alveolar expansion. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;64:801–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Orens JB, Boehler A, de Perrot M, et al. A review of lung transplant donor acceptability criteria. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2003;22:1183–200.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van Raemdonck D, Neyrinck A, Verleden GM, et al. Lung donor selection and management. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2009;15:28–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bittle GJ, Sanchez PG, Kon ZN, et al. The use of lung donors older than 55 years: a review of the UNOS database. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32:760–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mulligan MJ, Sanchez PG, Evans CF, et al. The use of extended criteria donors decreases one-year survival in high-risk lung recipients: a review of the UNOS database. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;152:891–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Botha P, Trivedi D, Weir CJ. Extended donor criteria in lung transplantation: impact on organ allocation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;131:1154–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van Raemdonck D, Rega FR, Neyrinck A, et al. Non-heart beating donors. Semin Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;16:309–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oto T, Levvey B, McEgan R, et al. A practical approach to clinical lung transplantation from a Maastricht category III donor with cardiac death. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26:196–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wigfield C. Donation after cardiac death for lung transplantation: a review of current clinical practice. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2014;19:455–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Egan TM. Non-heart-beating donors in thoracic transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23:3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    De Vleeschauwer SI, Wauters S, Dupont LJ, et al. Medium-term outcome after lung transplantation is comparable between brain-dead and cardiac-dead donors. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011;30:975–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Steen S, Ingemansson R, Eriksson L, et al. First human transplantation of a nonacceptable donor lung after reconditioning ex vivo. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83:2191–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sanchez PG, Bittle GJ, Burdorf L, et al. State of the art: clinical ex-vivo lung perfusion: rationale, current status, and future directions. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31:339–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van Raemdonck D, Neyrinck A, Cypel M, et al. Ex-vivo lung perfusion. Transplant Int. 2015;28:643–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cypel M, Yeung JC, Machuca T, et al. Experience with the first 50 ex vivo lung perfusions in clinical transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;144:1200–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wallinder A, Riise GC, Ricksen SE, et al. Transplantation after ex vivo lung perfusion: a midterm follow-up. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35:1303–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Valenza F, Citerio G, Palleschi A, et al. Successful transplantation of lungs from an uncontrolled donor after circulatory death preserved in situ by alveolar recruitment maneuvers and assessed by ex vivo lung perfusion. Am J Transplant. 2016;16:1312–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Slama A, Schillab L, Barta M, et al. Standard donor lung procurement with normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion: a prospective randomized clinical trial. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2017;36:744–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yeung JC, Krueger T, Yasufuku K, et al. Outcomes after transplantation of lungs preserved for more than 12h: a retrospective study. Lancet Respir Med. 2017;5:119–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Orens JB, Estenne M, Arcasoy S, et al. International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates: 2006 update – a consensus report from the Pulmonary Scientific Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25:745–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shah PD, Orens JB. Guidelines for the selection of lung-transplant candidates. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2012;17:467–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weill D, Benden C, Corris PA, et al. A consensus document for the selection of lung transplant candidates: 2104 – an update from the Pulmonary Transplantation Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015;34:1–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Celli BR, Cote CG, Marin JM, et al. The body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1005–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Van Agteren JE, Carson KV, Tiong LU, et al. Lung volume reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(10):CD001001.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tutic M, Lardinois D, Imfeld S, et al. Lung-volume reduction surgery as an alternative or bridging procedure to lung transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;82:208–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morrell MR, Pilewski JM. Lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis. Clin Chest Med. 2016;37:127–38.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Egan TM, Murray S, Bustami RT, et al. Development of the lung allocation system in the United States. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:1212–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Egan TM, Edwards LB. Effect of the lung allocation score on lung transplantation in the United States. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35:433–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2009;30:2493–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Aigner C, Jaksch P, Taghavi S, et al. Pulmonary retransplantation: is it worth the effort? A long-term analysis of 46 cases. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2008;27:60–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schumer EM, Rice JD, Kistler AM, et al. Single versus double lung retransplantation does not affect survival based on previous transplant type. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;103:236–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aigner C. Retransplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2015;20:521–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Maurer JR, Frost AE, Estenne M, et al. International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates. Transplantation. 1998;66:951–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chiumello D, Coppola S, Froio S, et al. Extracorporeal life support as abridge to lung transplantation: a systematic review. Crit Care. 2015;19:19.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rajagopal K, Hoeper MM. State of the art: bridging to lung transplantation using artificial organ support technologies. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35:1385–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lehr CJ, Zaas DW, Cheifetz IM. Ambulatory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung transplantation: walking while waiting. Chest. 2015;147:1213–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Myles PS. Aspects of anesthesia for lung transplantation. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1998;2:140–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jones RM, Enfield KB, Mehrad B, et al. Prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing lung transplantation: case series and review of the literature. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;84:1–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vizza CD, Lynch JP, Ochoa LL, et al. Right and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with severe pulmonary disease. Chest. 1998;113:576–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Koprivanac M, Budev MM, Yun JJ, et al. How important is coronary artery disease when considering lung transplant candidates? J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35:1453–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Choong CK, Meyers BF, Guthrie TJ, et al. Does the presence of preoperative mild or moderate coronary artery disease affect the outcomes of lung transplantation? Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;82:1038–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hoechter DJ, von Dossow V. Lung transplantation: from the procedure to managing patients with lung transplantation. Curr Opin Anesthesiol. 2016;29:8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Funk DJ, Moretti EW, Gan TJ. Minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring in the perioperative setting. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:887–97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Missant C, Rex S, Wouters PF. Accuracy of cardiac output measurements with pulse contour analysis (PulseCO) and Doppler echocardiography during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25:243–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sangkum L, Liu GL, Yu L, et al. Minimally invasive or noninvasive cardiac output measurement: an update. J Anesth. 2016;30:461–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rudnick MR, Marchi LD, Plotkin JS. Hemodynamic monitoring during liver transplantation: a state of the art review. World J Hepatol. 2015;7:1302–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Conacher ID, Paes ML. Mixed venous oxygen saturation during lung transplantation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1994;8:671–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shepherd SJ, Pearse RM. Role of central and mixed venous oxygen saturation measurement in perioperative care. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:649–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Murkin JM, Adams SJ, Novick RJ, et al. Monitoring brain oxygen saturation during coronary bypass surgery: a randomized, prospective study. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:51–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Harilall Y, Adam JK, Biccard BM, et al. The effect of optimising cerebral tissue oxygen saturation on markers of neurological injury during coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Heart Lung Circ. 2014;23:68–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Myles PS, Leslie K, McNeil J, et al. Bispectral index monitoring to prevent awareness during anaesthesia: the B-Aware randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004;363:1757–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    De Smet T, Struys MM, Neckebroek MM, et al. The accuracy and clinical feasibility of a new bayesian-based closed-loop control system for propofol administration using the bispectral index as a controlled variable. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1200–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    NICE clinical guideline 65: inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg65. Accessed 14 April 2017.
  71. 71.
    Sessler DI. Perioperative thermoregulation and heat balance. Lancet. 2016;387:2655–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Flachskampf FA, Badano L, Daniel WG, et al. Recommendations for transoesophageal echocardiography: update 2010. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2010;11:557–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    American Society of Anesthesiologists and Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Task Force on Transesophageal Echocardiography. Practice guidelines for perioperative transesophageal echocardiography. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:1084–96.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sullivan B, Puskas F, Fernandez-Bustamante A. Transesophageal echocardiography in noncardiac thoracic surgery. Anesthesiol Clin. 2012;30:657–69.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Evans A, Dwarakanath S, Hogue C, et al. Intraoperative echocardiography for patients undergoing lung transplantation. Anesth Analg. 2014;118:725–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Della Rocca G, Brondani A, Costa MG. Intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring during organ transplantation: what is new? Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2009;14:291–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tan TC, Dudzinski DM, Hung J, et al. Peri-operative assessment of right heart function: role of echocardiography. Eur J Clin Investig. 2015;45:755–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ashes C, Roscoe A. Transesophageal echocardiography in thoracic anesthesia: pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular function. Curr Opin Anesthesiol. 2015;28:38–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Miyaji K, Nakamura K, Maruo T, et al. Effect of a kink in unilateral pulmonary artery anastomosis on velocities of blood flow through bilateral pulmonary vein anastomoses in living-donor lobar lung transplantation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2004;17:998–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cartwright BL, Jackson A, Cooper J. Intraoperative pulmonary vein examination by transesophageal echocardiography: an anatomic update and review of utility. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013;27:111–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Felton ML, Michel-Cherqui M, Sage E, et al. Transesophageal and contact ultrasound echographic assessments of pulmonary vessels in bilateral lung transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93:1094–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shaikh N, Saif AS, Nayeemuddin M, et al. Patent foramen ovale: its significance in anesthesia and intensive care: an illustrated case. Anesth Essays Res. 2012;6:94–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Subramaniam K, Esper SA. Role of transesophageal echocardiography in perioperative patient management of lung transplantation surgery. J Perioper Echocardiogr. 2013;1:48–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Doufle G, Roscoe A, Billia F, et al. Echocardiography for adult patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Crit Care. 2015;19:326.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hohn L, Schweizer A, Morel DR, et al. Circulatory failure after anesthesia induction in a patient with severe primary pulmonary hypertension. Anesthesiology. 1999;91:1943–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Manthous CA. Avoiding circulatory complications during endotracheal intubation and initiation of positive pressure ventilation. J Emerg Med. 2009;38(5):622–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schisler T, Marquez JM, Hilmi I, et al. Pulmonary hypertensive crisis on induction of anesthesia. Sem Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2017;21:105–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Conacher ID. Anaesthesia for the surgery of emphysema. Br J Anaesth. 1997;79:530–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Quinlan JJ, Buffington CW. Deliberate hypoventilation in a patient with air trapping during lung transplantation. Anesthesiology. 1993;78:1177–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Myles PS, Ryder IG, Weeks AM, et al. Diagnosis and management of dynamic hyperinflation during lung transplantation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1997;11:100–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Petrucci N, De Feo C. Lung protective ventilation strategy for the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(2):CD003844.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Papiris SA, Manali ED, Kolilekas L, et al. Clinical review: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis acute exacerbations − unravelling Ariadne’s thread. Crit Care. 2010;14:246.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hosseinian L. Pulmonary hypertension and noncardiac surgery: implications for the anesthesiologist. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2014;28:1064–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Snell GI, Salamonsen RF, Bergin P, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide as a bridge to heart-lung transplantation in a patient with end-stage pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;151:1263–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    de Boer WJ, Waterbolk TW, Brugemann J, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation before induction of anesthesia in critically ill thoracic transplant patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72:1407–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Scheller MS, Kriett JM, Smith CM, et al. Airway management during anesthesia for double-lung transplantation using a single-lumen endotracheal tube with an enclosed bronchial blocker. J Cardiovasc Thorac Anesth. 1992;6:204–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Campos JH. Which device should be considered the best for lung isolation: double-lumen endotracheal tube versus bronchial blockers. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2007;20:27–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Conway SP, Brownlee KG, Denton M, et al. Antibiotic treatment of multidrug-resistant organisms in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Med. 2003;2:321–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Haja Mydin H, Corris PA, Nicholson A, et al. Targeted antibiotic prophylaxis for lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis patients colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa using multiple combination bactericidal testing. J Transp Secur. 2012;2012:135738.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pruszkowski O, Dalibon N, Moutafis M, et al. Effects of propofol vs sevoflurane on arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation. Br J Anaesth. 2007;98:539–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Módolo NS, Módolo MP, Marton MA, et al. Intravenous versus inhalation anaesthesia for one-lung ventilation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(7):CD006313.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schulte-Sasse U, Hess W, Tarnow J. Pulmonary vascular responses to nitrous oxide in patients with normal and high pulmonary vascular resistance. Anesthesiology. 1982;57:9–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Awori Hayanga JW, D’Cunha J. The surgical technique of bilateral sequential lung transplantation. J Thorac Dis. 2014;6:1063–9.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kim KN, Kim DW, Jeong MA. Comparison of pressure-controlled ventilation with volume-controlled ventilation during one-lung ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Anesthesiol. 2016;16:72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pardos PC, Garutti I, Pineiro P, et al. Effects of ventilatory mode during one-lung ventilation on intraoperative and postoperative arterial oxygenation in thoracic surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2009;23:770–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bittner HB, Binner C, Lehmann S, et al. Replacing cardiopulmonary bypass with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in lung transplantation operations. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;31:462–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    McIlroy DR, Pilcher DV, Snell GI. Does anaesthetic management affect early outcomes after lung transplant? An exploratory analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:506–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Geube MA, Perez-Protto SE, McGrath TL, et al. Increased intraoperative fluid administration is associated with severe primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Anesth Analg. 2016;122:1081–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Feltracco P, Serra E, Barbieri F, et al. Anesthetic considerations in lung transplantation for severe pulmonary hypertension. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:1976–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Triantafillou AN, Pasque MK, Huddleston CB, et al. Predictors, frequency and indications for cardiopulmonary bypass during lung transplantation in adults. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;57:1248–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wright BJ. Inhaled pulmonary vasodilators in refractory hypoxemia. Clin Exp Emerg Med. 2015;2:184–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rocca GD, Passariello M, Coccia C, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide administration during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2001;15:218–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Muzaffar S, Shukla N, Angelini GD, et al. Inhaled prostacyclin is safe, effective and affordable in patients with pulmonary hypertension, right-heart dysfunction, and refractory hypoxemia after cardiothoracic surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;128:949–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ventetuolo CE, Klinger JR. Management of acute right ventricular failure in the intensive care unit. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11:811–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Forrest P. Anaesthesia and right ventricular failure. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2009;37:370–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vachiery JL, Huez S, Gillies H, et al. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of an intravenous bolus of sildenafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;71:289–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Price LC, Wort SJ, Finney SJ, et al. Pulmonary vascular and right ventricular dysfunction in adult critical care: current and emerging options for management: a systematic literature review. Crit Care. 2010;14:R169.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Harjola VP, Mebazaa A, Celutkiene J, et al. Contemporary management of acute right ventricular failure: a statement from the Heart Failure Association and the Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation and Right Ventricular Function of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail. 2016;18:226–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kerbaul F, Gariboldi V, Giorgi R, et al. Effects of levosimendan on acute pulmonary embolism-induced right ventricular failure. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:1948–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nagendran M, Maruthappu M, Sugand K. Should double lung transplant be performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;12:799–804.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Yu WS, Paik HC, Haam SJ, et al. Transition to routine use of venoarterial extracorporeal oxygenation during lung transplantation could improve early outcomes. J Thorac Dis. 2016;8:1712–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ius F, Sommer W, Tudorache I, et al. Five-year experience with intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in lung transplantation: indications and midterm results. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35:49–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Odell DD, D’Cunha J, Shigemura N, et al. Intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an alternative to cardiopulmonary bypass in lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32:S167–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Pavlushkov E, Berman M, Valchanov K. Cannulation techniques for extracorporeal life support. Ann Transl Med. 2017;5:70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Salman J, Ius F, Sommer W, et al. Mid-term results of bilateral lung transplant with postoperatively extended intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe pulmonary hypertension. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017;52:163–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Chung M, Shiloh AL, Carlese A. Monitoring of the adult patient on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:393258.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rupprecht L, Lunz D, Philipp A, et al. Pitfalls in percutaneous ECMO cannulation. Heart Lung Vessel. 2015;7:320–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sidebotham D, Allen SJ, McGeorge A, et al. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults: practical aspects of circuits, cannulae, and procedures. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2012;26:893–909.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Reis Miranda D, van Thiel R, Brodie D, et al. Right ventricular unloading after initiation of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;191:346–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mohite PN, Sabashnikov A, Patil NP, et al. The role of cardiopulmonary bypass in lung transplantation. Clin Transpl. 2016;30:202–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Machuca TN, Collaud S, Mercier O, et al. Outcomes of intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation versus cardiopulmonary bypass for lung transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015;149:1152–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bermudez CA, Shiose A, Esper SA, et al. Outcomes of intraoperative venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation versus cardiopulmonary bypass during lung transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;98:1936–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Diamond JM, Lee JC, Kawut SM, et al. Clinical risk factors for primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:527–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hoechter DJ, Shen YM, Kammerer T, et al. Extracorporeal circulation during lung transplantation procedures: a meta-analysis. ASAIO J. 2017;63:551–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Castillo M. Anesthetic management for lung transplantation. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2011;24:32–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Shaver CM, Ware LB. Primary graft dysfunction: pathophysiology to guide new preventive therapies. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2017;11:119–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Silva CA, Carvalho RS, Cagido VR, et al. Influence of lung mechanical properties and alveolar architecture on the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2010;11:46–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    DeCampos KN, Keshavjee S, Slutsky AS, et al. Alveolar recruitment prevents rapid-reperfusion-induced injury of lung transplants. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1999;18:1096–102.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Singh RR, Laubach VE, Ellman PI, et al. Attenuation of lung reperfusion injury by modified ventilation and reperfusion techniques. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25:1467–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Porteous MK, Diamond JM, Christie JD. Primary graft dysfunction: lessons leaned about the first 72h after lung transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2015;20:506–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Della Rocca G, Pierconti F, Costa MG, et al. Severe reperfusion lung injury after lung transplantation. Crit Care. 2002;6:240–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tavare AN, Tsakok T. Does prophylactic inhaled nitric oxide reduce morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;13:516–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pasero D, Martin EL, Davi A, et al. The effects of inhaled nitric oxide after lung transplantation. Minerva Anestesiol. 2010;76:353–61.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hsu HH, Ko WJ, Chen JS, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pulmonary crisis and primary graft dysfunction. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2008;27:233–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Fischer S, Bohn D, Rycus P, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation: analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26:472–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Pottecher J, Falcoz PE, Massard G, et al. Does thoracic epidural analgesia improve outcome after lung transplantation? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;12:51–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Feltracco P, Barbieri S, Milevoj M, et al. Thoracic epidural analgesia in lung transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:1265–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Yeung JH, Gates S, Naidu BV, et al. Paravertebral block versus thoracic epidural for patients undergoing thoracotomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(2):CD009121.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Jouguelet-Lacoste J, La Colla L, Schilling D, et al. The use of intravenous infusion or single dose of low-dose ketamine for postoperative analgesia: a review of the current literature. Pain Med. 2015;16:383–403.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Laskowski K, Stirling A, McKay WP, et al. A systematic review of intravenous ketamine for postoperative analgesia. Can J Anaesth. 2011;58:911–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Scheffert JL, Raza K. Immunosuppression in lung transplantation. J Thorac Dis. 2014;6:1039–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Augoustides JG, Watcha SM, Pochettino A, et al. Early tracheal extubation in adults undergoing single-lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pilot evaluation of perioperative outcome. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2008;7:755–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Felten ML, Moyer JD, Dreyfus JF, et al. Immediate postoperative extubation in bilateral lung transplantation: predictive factors and outcome. Br J Anaesth. 2016;116:847–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Rocca GD, Coccia C, Costa GM, et al. Is very early extubation after lung transplantation feasible? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2003;17:29–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Thakuria L, Davey R, Romano R, et al. Mechanical ventilation after lung transplantation. J Crit Care. 2016 Feb;31(1):110–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Mitchell JB, Shaw AD, Donald S, et al. Differential lung ventilation after single-lung transplantation for emphysema. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2002;16:459–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Fuehner T, Kuehn C, Welte T, et al. ICU care before and after lung transplantation. Chest. 2016;150:442–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Pilarczyk K, Carstens H, Heckmann J, et al. Safety and efficiency of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy with direct bronchoscopic guidance for thoracic transplant recipients. Respir Care. 2016;61:235–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Najafizadeh K, Daneshvar A, Dezfouli AA, et al. Pulmonary artery stenosis shortly after lung transplantation: successful balloon dilation and stent insertion in one case. Ann Transplant. 2009;14:52–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Yserbyt J, Dooms C, Vos R, et al. Anastomotic airway complications after lung transplantation: risk factors, treatment modalities and outcome – a single-centre experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016;49:e1–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Yun JH, Lee SO, Jo KW, et al. Infections after lung transplantation: time of occurrence, sites, and microbiologic etiologies. Korean J Intern Med. 2015;30:506–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Parada MT, Alba A, Sepúlveda C. Early and late infections in lung transplantation patients. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:333–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Raghavan D, Gao A. Ahn C, et al Contemporary analysis of incidence of post-operative atrial fibrillation, its predictors, and association with clinical outcomes in lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015;34:563–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Jacques F, El-Hamamsy I, Fortier A, et al. Acute renal failure following lung transplantation: risk factors, mortality and long-term consequences. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41:193–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Evans CF, Iacono AT, Sanchez PG, et al. Venous thromboembolic complications of lung transplantation: a contemporary single-institution review. Ann Thorac Surg. 2015;100:2033–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Chan EG, Bianco V III, Richards T, et al. The ripple effect of a complication in lung transplantation: evidence for increased long-term survival. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;151:1171–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sweet SC. Induction therapy in lung transplantation. Transpl Int. 2013;26:696–703.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Tabarelli W, Bonatti H, Tabarelli D, et al. Long term complications following 54 consecutive lung transplants. J Thorac Dis. 2016;8:1234–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiaPapworth HospitalCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations