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Intraoperative Extracorporeal Life Support for Thoracic and Airway Surgery

  • Daniel Sellers
  • Karen Lam
  • Karen McRae
Chapter

Abstract

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) encompasses a spectrum of temporary mechanical support for patients with heart or lung dysfunction that does not respond to traditional critical care therapy. The term ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) is often used when the primary indication for support is failure of gas exchange. The physiologic goals vary with patient needs but may include oxygenation and CO2 removal, increased oxygen delivery via improved perfusion and the provision of lung rest and cardiac unloading. ECLS is available in an increasing number of specialised centres and may be of short duration (hours) to facilitate a surgical procedure or provide support for prolonged periods (weeks to months).

Keywords

Extracorporeal Support Oxygenation Membrane oxygenation Blood flow Life support 

Abbreviations

ACT

Activated clotting time

APTT

Activated partial thromboplastin time

CPB

Cardiopulmonary bypass

ECLS

Extracorporeal life support

ECMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

FEV1

Forced expiratory volume in 1 second

FVC

Forced vital capacity

HIT

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

ICU

Intensive care unit

INR

International normalised ratio

IVC

Inferior vena cava

OLV

One-lung ventilation

RA

Right atrium

SVC

Superior vena cava

SVR

Systemic vascular resistance

TEE

Transoesophageal echocardiography

TTE

Transthoracic echocardiography

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia and Pain ManagementToronto General Hospital, University Health NetworkTorontoCanada
  2. 2.University of Toronto, Department of AnaesthesiaTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of Anesthesia and Pain ManagementToronto General Hospital, University Health NetworkTorontoCanada

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