Waste Heat Recovery Potential on Heavy Duty Long Haul Trucks – A Comparison

  • Thomas ReicheEmail author
  • Francesco GaluppoEmail author
  • Nicolas EspinosaEmail author
Conference paper


Increasing fuel prizes and future legislations on CO2 emissions for European [1] and US road transport [2] lead truck manufacturers to invest in the development of fuel efficiency increasing technologies. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) describes a promising technology for long haul heavy duty trucks.

Rankine cycle waste heat recovery for automotive applications has been studied for many years with focus on fluid selection [3], control development [4], component development [5], modeling as well as testing [6] of defined architectures in the test lab and on vehicles.

The objective of this study has been to compare different Organic Rankine Cycle architectures for different engines on a European long haul application via transient vehicle simulations tacking into account the cooling package, the exhaust after treatment system as well as the energy management of the Rankine cycle (electrical vs mechanical coupling).

Results are showing that Cyclopentane shows the best overall net fuel economy performance using indirect condensation via a low temperature loop whereas Ethanol offers the best potential using direct condensation using forced air flow.


Organic Rankine Cycle Waste heat recovery Heavy duty trucks Long haul transport Mild hybridization 48 V 




Global Warming Potential


Organic Rankine Cycle


Waste Heat Recovery


Internal Combustion Engine


Mild Hybrid


Heavy Duty


Long Haul


Charge Air Cooler


Low Temperature Radiator


High temperature Radiator


Exhaust Gas Recirculate


Fixed Geometry Turbocharger


Variable Geometry Turbocharger


Battery State of Charge


Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (\( {g \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {g {kWh}}} \right. \kern-0pt} {kWh}} \))

Symbols and Subscripts


Working Fluid

\( m{}_{wf}^{ \cdot } \)

Working Fluid Flow Rate (\( {{kg} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{kg} s}} \right. \kern-0pt} s} \))

\( \rho_{wf} \)

Working Fluid Density (\( {{kg} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{kg} {m^{3} }}} \right. \kern-0pt} {m^{3} }} \))

\( N_{pump} \)

Pump Rotational Speed (\( rpm \))

\( C_{pump} \)

Pump Displacement (\( m^{3} \))

\( \eta_{vol,pump} \)

Pump Volumetric Efficiency

\( m_{wall} \)

Heat Exchanger Wall Mass (\( kg \))

\( cp_{wall} \)

Heat Exchanger Wall Specific Heat \( \left( {{J \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {J {kg K}}} \right. \kern-0pt} {kg K}}} \right) \)

\( T_{wall} \)

Heat Exchanger Wall Temperature (\( K \))

\( \dot{Q} \)

Thermal Power (\( W \))

\( h_{in/out} \)

Specific Enthalpy in/out (\( {J \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {J {kg}}} \right. \kern-0pt} {kg}} \))

\( K_{eq} \)

Turbine Discharge Coefficient

\( P_{in/out} \)

Pressure in/out (\( Pa \))


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Volvo Group Truck TechnologySaint-PriestFrance

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