Advertisement

Waste Heat Recovery Potential on Heavy Duty Long Haul Trucks – A Comparison

  • Thomas ReicheEmail author
  • Francesco GaluppoEmail author
  • Nicolas EspinosaEmail author
Conference paper

Abstract

Increasing fuel prizes and future legislations on CO2 emissions for European [1] and US road transport [2] lead truck manufacturers to invest in the development of fuel efficiency increasing technologies. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) describes a promising technology for long haul heavy duty trucks.

Rankine cycle waste heat recovery for automotive applications has been studied for many years with focus on fluid selection [3], control development [4], component development [5], modeling as well as testing [6] of defined architectures in the test lab and on vehicles.

The objective of this study has been to compare different Organic Rankine Cycle architectures for different engines on a European long haul application via transient vehicle simulations tacking into account the cooling package, the exhaust after treatment system as well as the energy management of the Rankine cycle (electrical vs mechanical coupling).

Results are showing that Cyclopentane shows the best overall net fuel economy performance using indirect condensation via a low temperature loop whereas Ethanol offers the best potential using direct condensation using forced air flow.

Keywords

Organic Rankine Cycle Waste heat recovery Heavy duty trucks Long haul transport Mild hybridization 48 V 

Nomenclature

Abbreviations

GWP

Global Warming Potential

ORC

Organic Rankine Cycle

WHR

Waste Heat Recovery

ICE

Internal Combustion Engine

MH

Mild Hybrid

HD

Heavy Duty

LH

Long Haul

CAC

Charge Air Cooler

LTR

Low Temperature Radiator

HTR

High temperature Radiator

EGR

Exhaust Gas Recirculate

FGT

Fixed Geometry Turbocharger

VGT

Variable Geometry Turbocharger

SOC

Battery State of Charge

BSFC

Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (\( {g \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {g {kWh}}} \right. \kern-0pt} {kWh}} \))

Symbols and Subscripts

WF

Working Fluid

\( m{}_{wf}^{ \cdot } \)

Working Fluid Flow Rate (\( {{kg} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{kg} s}} \right. \kern-0pt} s} \))

\( \rho_{wf} \)

Working Fluid Density (\( {{kg} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{kg} {m^{3} }}} \right. \kern-0pt} {m^{3} }} \))

\( N_{pump} \)

Pump Rotational Speed (\( rpm \))

\( C_{pump} \)

Pump Displacement (\( m^{3} \))

\( \eta_{vol,pump} \)

Pump Volumetric Efficiency

\( m_{wall} \)

Heat Exchanger Wall Mass (\( kg \))

\( cp_{wall} \)

Heat Exchanger Wall Specific Heat \( \left( {{J \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {J {kg K}}} \right. \kern-0pt} {kg K}}} \right) \)

\( T_{wall} \)

Heat Exchanger Wall Temperature (\( K \))

\( \dot{Q} \)

Thermal Power (\( W \))

\( h_{in/out} \)

Specific Enthalpy in/out (\( {J \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {J {kg}}} \right. \kern-0pt} {kg}} \))

\( K_{eq} \)

Turbine Discharge Coefficient

\( P_{in/out} \)

Pressure in/out (\( Pa \))

References

  1. 1.
    European commission: Proposal for a Regulation of The European Parliament and of The Council setting CO2 emission performance standards for new heavy-duty vehicles (2018)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Glensvig, M., et al. (AVL): Testing of a Long Haul Demonstrator Vehicle with a Waste Heat Recovery System on Public Road, SAE International (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scaccabarozzi, R., et al.: Comparison of working fluids and cycle optimization for heat recovery (2018)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu, X., et al.: Design, Modelling, and Control of a Waste Heat Recovery Unit for Heavy-Duty Truck Engines (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Treutler, J., et al.: Combination of ORC system and electrified auxiliaries on a long haul truck equipped with 48-Volt board net (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huster, R., et al.: Validated dynamic model of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for waste heat recovery in a diesel truck (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    ICCT: China’s Stage VI Emission Standard For Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Final Rule) (2018). https://www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/China_VI_Policy_Update_20180720.pdf
  8. 8.
    Grelet, V., et al.: Transient performance evaluation of waste heat recovery Rankine cycle based system for heavy duty trucks (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zacharof, N., Fontaras, G.: Report on VECTO Technology Simulation Capabilities and Future Outlook. JRC Technical Report, European Commission (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seitz, D., et al.: Model-based control of exhaust heat recovery in a heavy-duty vehicle (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu, X. et al.: Model predictive control of an organic rankine cycle system (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grelet, V., et al.: Modeling and control of Rankine based waste heat recovery systems for heavy duty trucks (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Daccord, R.: Cost to benefit ratio of an exhaust heat recovery system on a long haul truck (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Agurto-Goya, A., et al.: Model predictive control of organic rankine cycle applied to hybrid vehicles (2017)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frutiger, J., et al.: Working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycles – Impact of uncertainty of fluid properties (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Su, X., et al.: Towards working fluid properties and selection of Rankine cycle based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems for internal combustion engines – A fundamental analysis (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Allain, M., et al.: Daimler’s super truck program; 50% brake thermal efficiency (2012)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koeberlain, D.: Cummins SuperTruck Program: Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Truck (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gibble, J.: Volvo SuperTruck Powertrain Technologies for Efficiency Improvement (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Espinosa, N.: Contribution to the study of Waste Heat Recovery Systems on Commercial Trucks Diesel Engines (Ph.D. thesis) (2011)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reiche, T., et al.: Waste heat recovery potential analysis for heavy duty truck applications based on transient road cycle simulations, EORCC (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vaja, D.: Definition of an object oriented library for the dynamic simulation of advanced energy systems: Methodologies, Tools and Applications to Combined ICE-ORC Power Plants (Ph.D. thesis) (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grelet, V.: Rankine cycle based waste heat recovery system applied to heavy duty vehicles: topological optimization and model based control (Ph.D. thesis), par. 5.4 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Volvo Group Truck TechnologySaint-PriestFrance

Personalised recommendations