Pathogenesis of Bone Reactions in Joint Disorders

  • Reiner Bartl
  • Christoph Bartl


The functioning of the joint depends on the “frictionless” interaction of the components involved (cartilage layers, synovium, synovial fluid, subcortical bone, adjacent bone marrow, ligaments, muscles, menisci). This functional unit, joint-bones-synovia-muscles, can be affected by different factors (traumatic, degenerative, infection, autoimmunological, neurogenic and metabolic).


Synovial fluid Subchondral bone Bone marrow oedema Joint space narrowing Fibromyalgia syndrome 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reiner Bartl
    • 1
  • Christoph Bartl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Osteoporosis and Bone CenterMunichGermany
  2. 2.Center of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations