Advertisement

Integration of Building Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal (BIPV/T) System with Heat Recovery Ventilators for Improved Performance Under Extreme Cold Climates

  • Riccardo Toffanin
  • Hua GeEmail author
  • Andreas Athienitis
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Energy book series (SPE)

Abstract

The reliable operation of Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) is critical for maintaining a healthy indoor environment to remove contaminants and moisture, however, it remains a challenge in the Northern Canada due to the frequent frosting under the extreme cold conditions. The heat generated by a building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system can be used to pre-heat the incoming fresh air in HRV in order to reduce its defrost cycle, therefore, improving the reliability of HRV to provide adequate ventilation required. In this case, the BIPV/T needs to be designed for higher air temperature rise, which may not be optimum for the thermal energy and PV power generation. Therefore, system integration and optimization for coupling BIVP/T with HRVs is required. Depending on the level of thermal energy available and the outlet air temperature from the BIPV/T system, a control strategy needs to be developed to optimize the operation of HRVs. This paper presents the analysis of four different BIPV/T configurations and their integration with HRVs for a 120 m2 house located in Iqaluit, NU, Canada through modelling. Results show that the outlet air of a BIPV/T façade installation can be 14.8 °C higher than outdoor air on a clear sky winter day and that the defrost cycle can be reduced by 13%, up to 619 h annually.

Keywords

Building integrated photovoltaics/thermal (BIPV/T) Heat recovery ventilator (HRV) System integration Defrost cycle Extreme cold climate Canadian northern region 

References

  1. 1.
    Y. Chen, Design and Evaluation of Facade-Integrated Solar Technologies Suitable for High-Latitude Applications (Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montréal, Canada, 2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. Beattie, P. Fazio, R. Zmeureanu, J. Rao, A preliminary study of the performance of sensible and latent heat exchanger cores at the frosting limit for use in Arctic housing. Energy Procedia 78, 2596–2601 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Candanedo Ibarra, Modelling and Evaluation of the Performance of Building-Integrated Open Loop Air-based Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems (Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montréal, Canada, 2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Yang, A. Athienitis, A review of research and developments of building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 66, 886–912 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Beattie, Experimental Study of Air-to-Air Heat/Energy Exchangers for Use in Arctic Housing (Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montréal, Canada, 2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Phillips, R. Chant, D. Fisher, V. Bradley, Comparison of freezing control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators. ASHRAE Trans. 95(2), 484–490 (1989)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Kragh, J. Rose, S. Svendsen, Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in cold climates, in 7th Symposium on Building Physics in Nordic Countries, Reykjavik, vol. 1 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Rafati Nasr, M. Fauchoux, R. Besant, C. Simonson, A review of frosting air-to-air energy exchangers. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 30, 538–554 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Maayan Tardif, J. Tamasauskas, V. Delisle, M. Kegel, Performance of air based BIPV/T heat management strategies in a Canadian home. Procedia Environ. Sci. 38, 140–147 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Government of Canada, Engineering Climate Datasets. Accessed 2017. Available at: HYPERLINK http://climate.weather.gc.ca
  11. 11.
    Government of Canada: Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000 Station Data: Iqaluit A, in: Government of Canada. Accessed 1 June 2017. Available at: HYPERLINK http://climate.weather.gc.ca
  12. 12.
    A. Kayello, H. Ge, A. Athienitis, Attic ventilation in Northern Canadian climates, in 15th Canadian Conference on Building Science and Technology, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 1–16 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ASHRAE, Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Residential Buildings (Atlanta, 2016)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), Arviat E/2 Northern Sustainable House Energy Consumption Performance Assessment (Ottawa, 2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Canadian Solar Inc.: Max Power CS6X-310 | 315 | 320P. (Accessed September 2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. Yang, A Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Enhanced Open-Loop Air-Based Building-integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal (BIPV/T) Systems (Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montréal, Canada, 2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Athienitis, J. Bambara, B. O’Neill, J. Faille, A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector. Sol. Energy 85(2011), 139–153 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. Fisk, R. Chant, K. Archer, D. Hekmet, F. Offerman III, S. Pedersen, Onset of freezing in residential air-to-air heat exchangers. ASHRAE Trans. 91(Part 1B), 145–158 (1985)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Natural Resources Canada, Heat Recovery Ventilators (Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.KTH, Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Concordia UniversityMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations