Vertical Temperature Gradients in Apartments with Hydronic Radiator Heating

  • Mats Dahlblom
  • Birgitta Nordquist
  • Petter Wallentén
  • Lars-Erik Harderup
  • Lars Jensen
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Energy book series (SPE)


A vertical temperature stratification normally exists in rooms during the heating season in cold climates. An expression of the gradient in apartments heated by hydronic radiator heating systems with exhaust ventilation has earlier been developed assuming a dependency of the outdoor temperature. The expression was used by a public real estate owner when re-calculating measured indoor temperature at 2.1 m above floor to 1.2 m above floor representing the occupancy zone and used for individual metering and billing of space heating cost. To validate the suggested expression temperature measurements have been made at four heights in living rooms in apartments built in the 70’s. The heights includes 0.0, 0.1, 1.1 and 1.7 m above floor. The theoretical expression has been compared to the full-scale measurements and in general the expression overestimates the vertical temperature gradient. The measured gradients are generally very low. The thermal comfort in the aspect of vertical temperature gradient is good for the studied period.


Vertical temperature gradient Indoor temperature Residential apartments Hydronic heating system 



The projects within PEIRE are financed by the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning FORMAS (942-2016-79) and the Swedish Energy Agency (43092-1). The municipal property company in Lund who allowed the measurements to be performed in their apartment buildings are also acknowledged as well as the tenants that generously opened their homes for the measurements.


  1. 1.
    M. Dahlblom, L. Jensen (2011) Reglering av värmesystem i flerbostadshus med individuell värmemätning. Slutrapport för forskning med stöd från CERBOF [Control of heating systems in apartment buildings with individual heat metering. Final report of research supported by CERBOF]. (Rapport TVIT—11/3006). Lund: Building Services, Lund University. Available at: Accessed 1 Apr 2014
  2. 2.
    H. Overby, M. Steen-Thøde (1990) Calculation of vertical temperature gradients in heated rooms. Dept. of Building Technology and Structural Engineering, Aalborg. (Indoor Environmental Technology; No. 17, Vol. R9046)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Hansen, P. Kjerulf-Jensen, O.B. Stampe, Dansk Varme- og Klimateknisk Selskab. (1997). Varme- og klimateknik, grundbog (2. udgave, 1. oplag ed.). Lyngby: DanvakGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Dahlblom, L. Jensen (2014) Vertical temperature increase in multi-storey buildings. Proceedings NSB 2014. 10th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics. Lund, Sweden 15–19 June 2014Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lunds Kommuns Fastighets AB (2011) Komfortvärme [Comfort heat]. [Electronic] Available: Accessed 20 June 2012
  6. 6.
    G. Rundberg (2005) Individuell värmedebitering. Från uppstart i kv Grynmalaren till igångsättning i kv Labben [Individual metering and billing of space heating costs. From start in the property Grynmalaren to implementation in the property Labben]. (Rapport TVIT—05/7005). Building Services, Lund University, LundGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Pedersen, J. Borell, H. Caltenco, M. Dahlblom, C. Gao, L-E., Harderup, Y. Li, B. Nordquist, K. Stålne, P. Wallentén, A. Wierzbicka (2018) People as part of the energy system in residential buildings—challenges in transdisciplinary research for integrated understanding of technical installations, building performance, and tenants’ perception and behavior. Submitted to: Cold Climate HVAC 2018. The 9th International Cold Climate Conference. Sustainable new and renovated buildings in cold climates. Kiruna, Sweden 12–15, March 2018Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Shiltagh (2015) Mätsystem för operativ temperatur – test av hemtillverkade globtermometrar. [Operating temperature measurement system—Test of home-made global thermometers]. (Rapport TVIT—15/5054). Building services, Lund University, LundGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Wallentén (1998) Heat flow in a full scale room exposed to natural climate. (Report TABK—98/3051). Lund: Building Science, Lund UniversityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mats Dahlblom
    • 1
  • Birgitta Nordquist
    • 1
  • Petter Wallentén
    • 2
  • Lars-Erik Harderup
    • 2
  • Lars Jensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Building Services, Department of Building and Environmental Technology, LTHLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Building Physics, Department of Building and Environmental Technology, LTHLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations