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Vertical Temperature Gradients in Apartments with Hydronic Radiator Heating

  • Mats Dahlblom
  • Birgitta Nordquist
  • Petter Wallentén
  • Lars-Erik Harderup
  • Lars Jensen
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Energy book series (SPE)

Abstract

A vertical temperature stratification normally exists in rooms during the heating season in cold climates. An expression of the gradient in apartments heated by hydronic radiator heating systems with exhaust ventilation has earlier been developed assuming a dependency of the outdoor temperature. The expression was used by a public real estate owner when re-calculating measured indoor temperature at 2.1 m above floor to 1.2 m above floor representing the occupancy zone and used for individual metering and billing of space heating cost. To validate the suggested expression temperature measurements have been made at four heights in living rooms in apartments built in the 70’s. The heights includes 0.0, 0.1, 1.1 and 1.7 m above floor. The theoretical expression has been compared to the full-scale measurements and in general the expression overestimates the vertical temperature gradient. The measured gradients are generally very low. The thermal comfort in the aspect of vertical temperature gradient is good for the studied period.

Keyword

Vertical temperature gradient Indoor temperature Residential apartments Hydronic heating system 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The projects within PEIRE are financed by the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning FORMAS (942-2016-79) and the Swedish Energy Agency (43092-1). The municipal property company in Lund who allowed the measurements to be performed in their apartment buildings are also acknowledged as well as the tenants that generously opened their homes for the measurements.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mats Dahlblom
    • 1
  • Birgitta Nordquist
    • 1
  • Petter Wallentén
    • 2
  • Lars-Erik Harderup
    • 2
  • Lars Jensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Building Services, Department of Building and Environmental Technology, LTHLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Building Physics, Department of Building and Environmental Technology, LTHLund UniversityLundSweden

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