Background of Modelling Approaches and Tools

  • Fabio BorghettiEmail author
  • Paolo Cerean
  • Marco Derudi
  • Alessio Frassoldati
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)


This chapter illustrates the state of the art of the risk analysis methods and models for road tunnels with particular reference to the users’ egress models.


  1. 1.
    OECD (2001) Safety in tunnels—transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development—OECD Publications, ParisGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saccomanno F, Haastrup P (2002) Influence of safety measures on the risks of transporting dangerous goods through road tunnels. Risk Anal 22:1059–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lacroix D, Cassini P, Hall R, Saccomanno F (1999) Transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels: an integrated QRA Model developed under the joint OECD/PIARC Project ERS2. International ESReDA Seminar on ‘Safety and Reliability in Transport’, OsloGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ruffin E, Cassini P, Knoflacher H (2005) Transport of hazardous goods (Chap. 17). Beard A, Carvel R (eds) The handbook of tunnel fire safety. Thomas Telford Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Knoflacher H, Pfaffenbichler PC (2004) A comparative risk analysis for selected Austrian tunnels. In: Proceedings of 2nd international conference tunnel safety and ventilation, GrazGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Knoflacher H, Pfaffenbichler PC, Nussbaumer H (2002) Quantitative risk assessment of heavy goods vehicle transport through tunnels—the tauerntunnel case study. In: Proceedings of 1st international conference tunnel safety and ventilation, GrazGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Knoflacher H, Pfaffenbichler P (2001) A quantitative risk assessment model for road transport of dangerous goods. In: Proceedings of the 80th annual meeting of the transportation research board, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lovreglio R, Ronchi E, Nilsson D (2015) A model of the decision-making process during pre-evacuation. Fire Saf J 78:168–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Derudi M, Borghetti F, Favrin S, Frassoldati A (2018) TRAM: a new quantitative methodology for tunnel risk analysis. Chem Eng Trans 67:811–816. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caliendo C, De Guglielmo ML (2016) Quantitative risk analysis based on the impact of traffic flow in a road tunnel. Int J Math Comput Simul 10:39–45Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Caliendo C, Ciambelli P, De Guglielmo ML, Meo MG, Russo P (2012) Simulation of people evacuation in the event of a road tunnel fire. SIIV—5th Int Congr—Sustain Road Infrastruct Soc Behav Sci 53:178–188Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Capote JA, Alvear D, Abreu O, Cuesta A, Alonso V (2012) A real-time stochastic evacuation model for road tunnels. Saf Sci 52:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ronchi E, Colonna P, Berloco N (2013) Reviewing Italian fire safety codes for the analysis of road tunnel evacuations: advantages and limitations of using evacuation models. Saf Sci 52:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ronchi E (2013) Testing the predictive capabilities of evacuation models for tunnel fire safety analysis. Saf Sci 59:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ronchi E, Alvear D, Berloco N, Capote J, Colonna P, Cuesta A (2010) Human behavior in road tunnel fires: comparison between egress models (FDS + Evac, Steps, Pathfinder). In: International conference on fire science and engineering Interflam, pp 837–848Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ronchi E, Colonna P, Capote J, Alvear D, Berloco N, Cuesta A (2012) The evaluation of different evacuation models for assessing road tunnel safety analysis. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 30:74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lovreglio R, Fonzone A, Dell’Olio L (2016) A mixed logit model for predicting exit choice during building evacuations. Transp Res Part A: Policy Pract 92:59–75Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alonso V, Abreu O, Cuesta A, Alvear D (2014) An evacuation model for risk analysis in Spanish road tunnels. In: XVIII Congreso Panamericano de Ingeniería de Tránsito, Transporte y Logística (PANAM 2014), Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol 162, pp 208–217Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bosco D, Lovreglio R, Frassoldati A, Derudi M, Borghetti F (2018) Queue formation and evacuation modelling in road tunnels during fires. Chem Eng Trans 67:805–810. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Glasa J, Valasek L (2014) Study on applicability of FDS + Evac for evacuation modeling in case of road tunnel fire. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 7:3603–3615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seike M, Kawabata N, Hasegawa M (2017) Quantitative assessment method for road tunnel fire safety: development of an evacuation simulation method using CFD-derived smoke behavior. Saf Sci 94:116–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Borghetti F, Derudi M, Gandini P, Frassoldati A, Tavelli S (2017) Evaluation of the consequences on the users safety. In: Tunnel fire testing and modeling: the Morgex North tunnel experiment. Springer International Publishing, pp. 65–75.
  23. 23.
    Lovreglio R, Ronchi R, Borri D (2014) The validation of evacuation simulation models through the analysis of behavioural uncertainty. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 131:166–174Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabio Borghetti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paolo Cerean
    • 2
  • Marco Derudi
    • 3
  • Alessio Frassoldati
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of DesignPolitecnico di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of DesignPolitecnico di MilanoMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”Politecnico di MilanoMilanItaly
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”Politecnico di MilanoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations